20 μm in diameter. Like other free-living ciliates, G. trihymene has selleck kinase inhibitor a transcriptionally active macronucleus and a germline micronucleus. The infraciliature
and buccal apparatus are the same as in previous reports, however, we found the life cycle was much more complicated and included two reproductive modes new to PF 2341066 scuticociliates, asymmetric division and reproductive cysts. Figure 1 G. trihymene morphotypes. A, C, E were from living cells; B, D, F- H were from protargol impregnated specimens. A, B. Lateral and ventral view of trophonts. C. A well-fed trophont. D. One probable asymmetric divider. Arrow marks the smaller macronucleus. The white square frame marks the micronucleus from a different plane of focus. The smaller macronucleus differs
from the micronucleus by having many nucleoli. E, F. Ventral view of tomites. G. One asymmetric divider with two displaced macronuclei. H. One long asymmetric divider, probably releasing one trophont (arrow). Scale bars: A-H: 25 μm. Processes of asymmetric division in young cultures Many slowly moving, well-fed trophonts (Figure 1C) appeared within 24 hours after inoculation with tomites in cultures of wheat grain medium. In all of the cultures, a trophont underwent a cell division, but cytokinesis was arrested prior to completion, creating a unit consisting of two cells, now called “”subcells”" because of their failure to separate. PD0332991 chemical structure Typically,
each of the two connected subcells later underwent a second transverse Dimethyl sulfoxide division, resulting in a chain of four subcells, each with a macronucleus, an oral apparatus, and a contractile vacuole (Figures 1H; 2A). We define these chains of subcells as asymmetric dividers. Asymmetric dividers vary in sizes from 30 × 15 μm to 180 × 30 μm in vivo, have diverse shapes consisting of chains of 2-4 subcells (Figures 1G, H; 2A, J, O) and give rise to two filial cells that could be morphologically differentiated from each other after each division. Similar asymmetric dividers were also repeatedly found in different cultures, though the sizes varied with media type. Up to 4 macronuclei were found in the cytoplasm of each asymmetric divider (Figure 1H). Most undisturbed asymmetric dividers attached to the bottom of Petri dishes, moved very slowly or stayed immobile and had two or more rounded contractile vacuoles, pulsating with different frequencies (arrows in Figure 2C). The number of asymmetric dividers in the cultures increased with time from appearance of the first asymmetric divider. Figure 2 Division processes of two G.