DNA extraction Genomic DNA was extracted from 1 5 mL of liquid cu

DNA extraction Genomic DNA was extracted from 1.5 mL of liquid culture using the GuSCN-silica method [23]. Briefly, PXD101 in vitro cells from the liquid culture were pelleted by centrifugation at 5,000 rpm for 5 min, the supernatant discarded, and the cell pellet resuspended in 900 μL guanidiniumthiocyanate lysis buffer (5.25 M GuSCN, 100 mM Tris–HCl pH 6.4, 20 mM EDTA, 1.3% Triton X-100) and 20 μl of silica suspension. After resuspending, the mixture was incubated at room temperature for 5 min, then centrifuged at 5,000 rpm for 10 s. The supernatant

was discarded and the pellet washed with buffer (5 M GuSCN) and 50% ethanol. The pellet was dried briefly and the nucleic acid was resuspended in 50 μL ultrapure milli-Q water. The sample find more was stored at −20°C. Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing The complete 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene was amplified by PCR. Reactions were carried out using the universal primers pcrF (5′-AGAGTTTGATCATGGCTCAG-3′) (positions 6–26 in E.coli rDNA), pcrR (5′-TACGGYTACCTTGTTACGACTT-3′) (positions 1513–1492 in E.coli rDNA), RupA (5′-CGTATTACCGCGGCTGCT-3′) (positions 536–519 in E.coli rDNA) [24]. Each PCR reaction mixture (25 μL) consisted of 12.5 μL PCR Master Mix (2x) (Fermentas Life Sciences), 5 pmol of each primer and approximately 50 ng genomic DNA as the template. The PCR program was the following: initial

denaturation for 5 min at 95°C, followed by 30 cycles of denaturation at 94°C for 1 min, annealing at 45°C for 1 min, and extension at 72°C for 2 min, before a final extension at 72°C

for 5 min. The PCR product was purified with MSB® Spin PCRapace (Invitek) and sequenced using an ABI 3130xl Genetic Analyzer. The primers pcrF, pcrR and RupA were used for sequencing the amplified 16S rRNA gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA genes The 16S rRNA gene sequences were first assembled using Phred and Phrap, followed by editing with Consed [25–27], after which the phylogenetic affiliations were assessed using the Ribosome Database Project [28]. Determination of antibiotic resistance To determine the antibiotic resistance, each strain was grown in the liquid medium described above. Six antibiotics at three concentrations were used: ampicillin (10, 25 and Histamine H2 receptor 100 μg mL-1), meropenem (0.3, 3 and 30 μg mL-1), norfloxacin (0.5, 2, 10 μg mL-1), chloramphenicol (1, 5, 30 μg mL-1), kanamycin (1, 5, 20 μg mL-1) and tetracycline (1, 5, 20 μg mL-1). The assay was performed in 96-well microtiter plates. The volume of medium in each well was 200 μL. Each well was inoculated with a strain from the 96-well microtiter storage plate using a Liquid Handler: Plate Replicator (V & P Scientific). The selleck inhibitor plates were incubated at 20°C without shaking. The optical density (OD) was measured at 600 nm after 16, 20, 24, 40 and 64 h. In parallel, the strains were grown on control plates not containing antibiotics.

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