In addition, pathogenic strains of L. borgpetersenii and L. interrogans were divided into separate groups. Based on the sequence results, L. kirschneri was not separated from L. interrogans www.selleckchem.com/products/ly3039478.html (see Figures 4 and 5). Remarkably, saprophytic strains and intermediate strains allocated to L. broomii, L. fainei, L. inadai (genes icdA, secY, adk, LipL32, LipL41) and L. alexanderi and L. weilii (genes LipL32 and LipL41) did not produce PCR products for the MSLT data analysis of the genes indicated. Clustering of the MSP Dendrogram (Figure 1) corresponded with the constructed phylogenetic trees
(Figures 4 and 5) and confirmed the comparability of mass spectrometry and molecular typing methods. Figure 4 Neighbor Joining tree based on multi locus sequence typing analysis. The bar indicates 0.1 estimated substitution per sequence position. blue: intermediate leptospiral strains, red: pathogenic leptospiral strains. Figure 5 Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic tree based on the 16S rRNA sequencing. The bar indicates 0.01 estimated substitution per sequence position. blue: intermediate leptospiral strains, green: non-pathogenic leptospiral strains, red: pathogenic leptospiral
strains. Discussion Recently, it was shown that the optimization and rigorous control of sample preparation GSK2879552 chemical structure are the most critical parameters for successful typing of bacterial strains, using MALDI-TOF MS . To establish a robust extraction procedure for Leptospira spp., we optimized the commonly used ethanol/formic acid extraction protocol from Bruker Daltonik GmbH by introducing Beta adrenergic receptor kinase minor modifications. In this context, Djelouadji et al. demonstrated  that reliable leptospiral species identification is possible with directly spotted samples when organisms are available in sufficient numbers (e.g. > 1 x 105 per ml). In our hands, leptospiral cultures needed to reach a minimal concentration of 1 x 106 organisms per ml for a successful extraction procedure. Below this concentration, no visible pellet was found after centrifugation and, following that, results of the
extraction procedure were inadequate. As described by Freiwald and Sauer , higher densities of bacterial organisms are needed for successful extraction procedure. This might be critical in applying the described procedure in routine diagnostics, since the isolation of Leptospira spp. from clinical samples, such as urine or blood, is difficult and time-consuming. It should be emphasized that positive results in laboratory Selleck Inhibitor Library cultivation may take up to six months . However, it was reported that microorganisms in urine (Escherichia coli)  and in blood samples  were identified directly with MALDI-TOF MS. The inclusion of the optional PBS washing step into the extraction procedure resulted in the lack of protein peaks in the mass range beyond 11,000 Da.