In contrast up

In contrast up regulation of genes encoding cation transport systems (mnhB_1, mnhC_1, mnhD_1, mnhF_1, mnhG_1) was found. Figure 7 Heatmap of RNA Sequencing comparing Selleckchem BTK inhibitor JKD6159 ( aryK inactive) to JKD6159_AraC r ( aryK intact). RNA seq was performed in duplicate from stationary phase cultures. This heatmap, clustered on expression profiles, was created based on log2 transformed counts to identify consistent changes in expression profiles between ARRY-438162 chemical structure strains. To be included in the heat map, genes were required to have at least 1000 counts (reads), totaled over all samples, where the standard deviation of log2 expression differences had to exceed two. The heatmap highlights

significant aryK-dependent changes, in particular genes involved in the regulation of central metabolic functions. Here, we have clearly demonstrated that agr is the major “”on-off”" switch click here for virulence in ST93 CA-MRSA, but we also found that other genetic changes are impacting virulence gene regulation in a clone-specific manner. We speculate that the inactivation of aryK may have been an evolutionary response by ST93 CA-MRSA to modulate or fine-tune the amount of Hla and other factors required for host persistence. There are six AraC/XylS family regulators in S. aureus (SA0097, SA0215, SA0622, SA1337, SA2092, SA2169; S. aureus

strain N315 locus tags). Two of these, Rbf (SA0622) and Rsp (SA2169) have been studied and demonstrated in other S. aureus strains to regulate biofilm formation and modulate expression of surface-associated proteins [24,

25, 31]. In contrast, we found that aryK increases Hla expression and virulence, acting as a positive regulator of virulence by directly or indirectly upregulating exotoxin expression, without an apparent effect on agr expression in stationary phase. Conclusions In this study, we have obtained insights into the genetic basis for the increased virulence of ST93 by using a combination of comparative and functional genomics. We have demonstrated the key role of Hla and agr and shown how an additional novel regulatory gene, aryK by a loss-of-function point mutation, is modulating virulence in this clone. Quantification of exotoxin expression in a larger collection of ST93 strains demonstrated that the findings in strain JKD6159 are relevant to the majority of L-gulonolactone oxidase the ST93 population isolated from around Australia as exotoxin expression in JKD6159 is representative of most of the ST93 population. Our study highlights the power of comparative genomics to uncover new regulators of virulence but it also shows the complex nature of these changes even in closely related bacterial populations. Careful strain selection, detailed comparative genomics analyses, and functional genomic studies by creating multiple genetic changes in one strain will be required to gain a full insight into the genetic basis for the emergence and hypervirulence of ST93 CA-MRSA.

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