, 2011a). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of ivermectin, albendazole and moxidectin against Libyostrongylus in ostriches raised on a farm in the state of buy RO4929097 Minas Gerais, Brazil with a history of ivermectin use. The study was performed
in an ostrich farm located in the municipal district of Guarani in the state of Minas Gerais. The production of ostriches on the farm began in 2004 and since then, ivermectin has been used twice a year for the control of parasites. The anthelmintic test used 16 adult ostriches for each drug evaluated. The birds were treated with an oral dose of albendazole (6 mg/kg) and an injectable dose (0.2 mg/kg) of ivermectin or moxidectin. The dosages for ivermectin and Rucaparib manufacturer moxidectin were based on the literature that reports the use of these compounds to ostriches (Pennycott and Patterson, 2001 and Bastianello et al., 2005). These doses were the same as recommended by the manufacturer to other livestock animals. Although albendazole has not been used in ostriches, the rationale of the authors of the articles cited above was followed, and the recommended manufacturer dosage for the same types of animals was adopted. The brand names of these drugs and the company that manufactures them were as follow:
albendazole, “Ricobendazole oral”, manufactured by “Ouro Fino”; ivermectin, “Ivomec injetavel 50 ML – Ivermectina Merial 1%”, manufactured by “Merial Brasil”; moxidectin, “Cydectin NF 500 ML – Fort Dodge – Moxidectina 1%”, manufactured by “Fort Dodge”. All birds used were infected with both Libyostrongylus species. The feces were collected from each ostrich, on the day of treatment and after 13 days, with the aid of a disposable plastic bag immediately
after defecation, avoiding the part that contacted the soil or the vegetation (Andrade et al., 2011a). Two grams of feces were used for quantifying the number of eggs per gram (EPG), according to the modified technique of Gordon and Whitlock (1939). This technique uses the Mac Master chamber that detects above 50 EPG. The efficacy of the drugs was calculated as E = 100 [1 − (Xt/Xc)]; Xt and Xc are the arithmetic mean of EPG before Megestrol Acetate (c) and after (t) 13 days of anthelmintic treatment for each group ( Coles et al., 1992). The anthelmintic resistance was confirmed if the % of the fecal egg count reduction was <95% ( Coles et al., 1992). Fecal cultures were performed in samples positive for eggs after treatment, the infective larvae were identified as before ( Ederli et al., 2008b) and a mean of all the animals calculated. The efficacy of the anthelmintics varied. Ivermectin had an efficacy of 60%, while albendazole and moxidectin of 100% (Table 1). The farm studied here used ivermectin twice a year for 7 years without rotation of the drug, clearly indicating that this period was sufficient to select resistant individuals in the helminth population.