The P26 phylogenetic tree suggests that this gene was obtained fr

The P26 phylogenetic tree suggests that this gene was obtained from three independent acquisition events within the Baculoviridae family. The presence of a signal peptide only in the PsinSNPV p26a/ORF-20 homolog indicates distinct function between the two P26 proteins. Conclusions: PsinSNPV has a genomic sequence apparently different from other baculoviruses sequenced so far. The complete genome sequence of PsinSNPV will provide a valuable resource, contributing to studies on its molecular biology and functional genomics, and will promote the development of this virus as an effective bioinsecticide.”
“Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) has been

associated with executive functions and attention GSK2126458 in vivo deficits. To clarify the issue of neurocognitive impairments in CAE, we investigated whether specific executive functions and attention deficit patterns

were present in a well-defined group of children with CAE who were taking valproic acid. Participants included 15 children with CAE and 15 healthy controls aged 8-15 years and matched for sex, age and IQ. We compared the performances of the two groups in the following neuropsychological domains: planning and problem solving (TOL), verbal fluency (FAS and CAT), verbal short-term memory (DSF), verbal KU-57788 concentration working memory (DSB), visuospatial memory (Corsi Block Tapping Test) and sustained and divided attention (TMT-A and TMT-B). No differences were found between the two groups on measures of intellectual functioning, verbal short-term memory and visuospatial memory. By contrast, significant differences were found in total time of planning task, phonological and category fluency and sustained and divided attention. Future studies that systematically examine different aspects of attention and executive functions are needed to outline a clear and specific neuropsychological profile in CAE. (C) 2012 The Japanese

Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“We describe high-density magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy conversion in a high-temperature seed-free argon plasma, for which a compact linear-shaped Faraday-type MHD electrical power generator is used. Short-time-duration single-pulse shock-tunnel-based experiments demonstrate the MHD energy conversion with varying total inflow temperature up LDK378 inhibitor to 9000K and applied magnetic-flux density up to 4.0T. The high-temperature plasma is transformed from the thermal-equilibrium state at the entrance to the weak-nonequilibrium state in the supersonic MHD channel. The discharge structure is reasonably homogeneous without suffering from serious streamer development. The power generation performance is monotonically improved by increasing total inflow temperature and strength of magnetic field. The enthalpy extraction efficiency of 13.1% and overall power density of 0.16GW/m(3) are attained. The local power density at the middle of the channel reaches 0.

The results of immunohistochemical staining revealed that pulsati

The results of immunohistochemical staining revealed that pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion was suppressed after injection of antagonist peptide 234 into the lateral cerebral ventricle, and a significant increase in luteinizing hormone level was observed after kisspeptin-10 injection into the arcuate nucleus MAPK inhibitor and medial preoptic area. The results of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent

assay showed that luteinizing hormone levels during the first hour of kisspeptin-10 infusion into the arcuate nucleus were significantly greater in the 100 pM kisspeptin-10 group than in the 10 pM kisspeptin-10 group. These findings indicate that kisspeptin directly promotes gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion and luteinizing hormone release in gonadotropin-releasing hormone/enhanced green fluorescent protein transgenic rats. The arcuate nucleus is a key component of the kisspeptin-G protein-coupled receptor 54 signaling pathway underlying regulating luteinizing hormone pulse secretion.”
“This paper describes the synthesis and biological evaluation of novel phenyldiazenyl benzothiazole (PDB) derivatives as probes for imaging neurofibrillary tangles

(NFTs) in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We successfully synthesized three PDB derivatives using a diazo coupling reaction. In binding experiments in vitro, the compounds displayed higher affinity for tau aggregates than for A beta aggregates. In fluorescent staining experiments using AD brain sections, 9 visualized NFTs clearly. No-carrier-added radioiodinated PDB derivatives were successfully Liproxstatin-1 mouse prepared through an iododestannylation reaction from the corresponding tributyltin derivatives. [(125)I]9 labeled NFTs in sections of brain tissue selleck compound from a patient with AD, but not a control.

In biodistribution experiments using normal mice, the PDB derivatives displayed an uptake into the brain, sufficient for imaging NFTs, ranging from 0.94 to 3.2% ID g(-1) but a relatively slow washout. Although further modifications are necessary to improve the pharmacokinetics in the brain, PDB with high affinity for tau aggregates may be useful as a backbone structure to develop agents for imaging NFTs in AD brains.”
“Since the 1990s nutritional supplements including protein, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals have been used to try and improve the superovulatory response of embryo donors in cattle. However, the accumulated information indicates that nutritional supplementation with protein, fatty acids, or minerals does not increase the number of viable embryos from superovulated cattle. Most of the evidence has shown that vitamin supplementation may increase the mean production of transferable embryos, but only in cows, as a detrimental effect on embryo viability has been reported in young heifers.

In addition to these two elements, copper

and zinc also d

In addition to these two elements, copper

and zinc also did not vary significantly across the statoliths collected from Galapagos squid. All elements demonstrate potential to influence a multivariate elemental fingerprint, which may provide a useful measure of population discrimination needed for stock assessment.”
“The NITROGEN LIMITATION ADAPTION (NLA) gene was initially shown to function in nitrogen limitation responses; however, recent work shows that the nla mutant hyperaccumulates Pi, phenocopying the Pi signaling mutant pho2. PHO2 encodes a putative E2 conjugase, UBC24. Here, we show that NLA is an E3 ligase that specifically requires UBC24 for polyubiquitination in Arabidopsis thaliana. Among five members of the Pht1 click here Pi-transporter family tested, NLA associates only with PT2 (Pht1; 4). The NLA-UBC24 pair mediates polyubiquitination of PT2 but not PT1. Posttranslational decay of PT2 at high Pi is blocked in pho2 and inhibited by MG132, indicating the requirement of UBC24 and 26S proteasomes. Consistent with NLA/UBC24

function, induced NLA expression causes a UBC24-dependent decrease in PT2 levels. Confocal microscopy of fusion proteins revealed an NLA/PT2 interaction at the plasma membrane. Collectively, these results show that under Pi-replete conditions, NLA and UBC24 target the PT2 transporter for destruction. During the Pi deprivation response, NLA and PHO2 transcripts are cleaved by miR399 and miR827, respectively, and our results suggest that this downregulation relieves the posttranslational repression of PT2, allowing it to accumulate and participate in Pi uptake. Our work provides additional molecular details describing Pi signaling/homeostasis regulation by identifying NLA and

UBC24 as partners and PT2 as one of their downstream targets.”
“We report photoelectron track length distributions between 3 and 8 keV in gas mixtures of Ne + CO2 + CH3NO2 (260: 80: 10 Torr) and CO2 + CH3NO2 (197.5: 15 Torr). The measurements were made using a negative ion time projection chamber (NITPC) Selleckchem PARP inhibitor at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). We report the first quantitative analysis of photoelectron track length distributions in a gas. The distribution of track lengths at a given energy is best fit by a lognormal distribution. A powerlaw distribution of the form, f(E) = a(E/E-o)(n) is found to fit the relationship between mean track length and energy. We find n = 1.20 +/- 0.07 for Ne + CO2 + CH3NO2 and n = 1.20 +/-0.09 for CO2 + CH3NO2. Understanding the distribution of photoelectron track lengths in proportional counter gases is important for optimizing the pixel size and the dimensions of the active region in electron-drift time projection chambers (TPCs) and NITPC X-ray polarimeters.

BMD was measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry and was reported

BMD was measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry and was reported as T-score and Z-score. Additional information collected for each patient

included age, race, gender, current and prior AEDs, ambulatory state, menopausal state, concomitant medications potentially associated with reduced bone mineralization, and comorbid illness potentially associated with reduced bone mineralization. Associations between reduced bone mineralization and variables were tested for significance using Fisher’s exact test, Student’s t-test, and Wilcoxon rank sum test.\n\nResults: The average age of the entire study population was 43.5 (+/-12.5) years. Fifty-five percent of patients had T-score less than or equal to -1, the WHO criterion for osteopenia in postmenopausal women. The prevalence of Z-scores less than -2.0

was 15%, which is more than sixfold greater than expected. The R406 manufacturer markers for decreased BMD included older age or menopause in women, longer duration of therapy, and a history of use of phenytoin or phenobarbital. Assisted ambulation was also associated with low BMD.\n\nConclusion: Our results indicate that reduced bone mineralization is prevalent and a significant health concern in an urban population of patients with epilepsy. Because of the high prevalence of reduced bone mineralization reported in numerous studies including this study, routinety screening for reduced bone mineralization is warranted in patients receiving anticonvulsant therapy. THZ1 nmr (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: In HER2-overexpressing breast cancer, accumulating preclinical evidences suggest that some chemotherapies, like trastuzumab, but also taxanes, are able to trigger a T helper 1 (Th1) anticancer immune response that contribute to treatment success. T helper 1 immune response selleck compound is characterised by the expression of the transcription factor T-bet in CD4 T lymphocytes. We

hypothesised that the presence of such T cells in the tumour immune infiltrates following neoadjuvant chemotherapy would predict patient survival.\n\nMETHODS: In a series of 102 consecutive HER2-overexpressing breast cancer patients treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy incorporating antracyclines or taxane and trastuzumab, we studied by immunohistochemistry the peritumoral lymphoid infiltration by T-bet+ lymphocytes before and after chemotherapy in both treatment groups. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox modelling were used to assess relapse-free survival (RFS).\n\nRESULTS: Fifty-eight patients have been treated with trastuzumab-taxane and 44 patients with anthracyclines-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The presence of T-bet+ lymphocytes in peritumoral lymphoid structures after chemotherapy was significantly more frequent in patients treated with trastuzumab-taxane (P 0.0008). After a median follow-up of 40 months, the presence of T-bet+ lymphocytes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy confers significantly better RFS (log-rank test P = 0.011) only in patients treated with trastuzumab-taxane.

We have determined the cut-off value of the NDI to detect neck pa

We have determined the cut-off value of the NDI to detect neck pain associated with disability to be 15.\n\nThe normative score and the cut-off value of the NDI were determined. Our cut-off value is potentially useful in evaluating the therapeutic effectiveness learn more of various interventions for neck pain.”
“Purpose To assess the tolerability and outcomes of laser treatment for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) under sub-tenon anaesthetic with oral or rectal sedation

using a reliable, multidimensional, and internationally accepted tool for assessment of neonatal pain. Methods Sixty-two babies have had ROP laser treatment in our neonatal unit in the 7-year interval between 1 March 2005 and 28 February 2012; 44% (27 of the 62) were performed using sub-tenon anaesthesia. Pain scores were routinely assessed using the Neonatal Pain Agitation and Sedation Scale (N-PASS) every 10 min during

laser treatment. The outcome and requirement for re-treatment in this group was compared with that in the intravenous sedation group. Results Pain scores were available in 19 of the 27 babies treated under sub-tenon anaesthesia. The mean pain score during treatment was 2.7 (SD+/-1.7, range 0.5-6.2). There was no statistically significant correlation between the mean pain score and duration of treatment (Spearman correlation coefficient (rho)=0.31; P=0.09), number of laser burns (rho=0.32; P=0.09), or post-menstrual age of the baby at the time of treatment (rho=0.38; P=0.052). Treatments performed under sub-tenon anaesthesia were as successful as those performed under intravenous sedation. The mean pain scores during laser treatment under sub-tenon anaesthesia in our study were lower than those previously reported during ROP screening or heel-stick procedure. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that sub-tenon anaesthesia with oral or rectal sedation provides

sufficient pain control for laser treatment for ROP without the need or risks of intravenous sedation and intubation.”
“Classical optical astronomy measures the direction of the EGFR inhibitor local plumb line on the stellar background, and is influenced by variations of the earth gravity field. Therefore, classical optical astrometry can be used to measure and study variations of plumb line. This endows classical optical astrometric technologies special significance for the interdisciplinary researches of astronomy and geoscience, and makes them irreplaceable by technologies like very long baseline interferometry, satellite laser ranging. However, classical astrometric instruments have a major drawback of low efficiency, such as the low automaticity, more operating observers, and even operative error which makes it very difficult to reduce the random observation error in some visual instruments. To overcome this drawback, we have successfully developed the digital zenith telescope prototype (DZT-1) with the aperture of 200 mm, using charge coupled device and other advanced technologies and new equipments.

MethodsInhibition of FXa by TFPI in plasma was determined by meas

MethodsInhibition of FXa by TFPI in plasma was determined by measuring thrombin generation triggered with FXa, the FX activator from Russell’s viper venom (RVV-X), FXIa, or FIXa. TF-independent anticoagulant activities of TFPI and its cofactor, proteinS, were quantified: (i) after neutralization of TFPI and proteinS with anti-TFPI or anti-proteinS antibodies; and (ii) in TFPI-depleted or proteinS-depleted plasmas supplemented with varying amounts of TFPI or proteinS. ResultsBoth anti-TFPI and anti-proteinS antibodies

enhanced thrombin generation in plasma triggered with RVV-X, FXa, FIXa, or FXIa. Anti-TFPI and anti-proteinS antibodies decreased the lag time and increased the peak height of thrombin generation to the HM781-36B in vivo same extent, indicating that inhibition of FXa by TFPI requires the presence of proteinS. TFPI and proteinS titrations in TFPI-depleted or proteinS-depleted plasma in which thrombin formation was initiated with triggers other than TF also revealed TF-independent anticoagulant activity of TFPI, which was completely dependent on the presence of proteinS. ConclusionDirect inhibition of FXa by TFPI contributes to the downregulation of coagulation.”
“Magnetic resonance imaging is increasingly used to assess neonatal hypoxic-ischemic

injury, and several scoring systems were developed to predict neurologic outcomes in these patients. We examined the magnetic resonance imaging studies of 33 neonates/infants who manifested acute perinatal hypoxicischemic CCI-779 in vivo injuries. Using a seven-point susceptibility-weighted imaging categorical grading scale, each patient received a “prominence

of vein” score, which was dichotomized into a “normal” or “abnormal” group. Six-month outcomes were assessed using the Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category Scale. We then determined whether “prominence of vein” scores correlated with neurologic outcomes in patients with hypoxic-ischemic injuries, and compared these results with the Barkovich magnetic resonance imaging scoring system. Patients with “normal” “prominence of vein” scores demonstrated better outcomes (mean Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category Scale value = 2) than patients with “abnormal” “prominence of vein” scores (mean Pediatric Cerebral Performance VS-6063 in vitro Category Scale value = 4). The dichotomized “prominence of vein” groups demonstrated correlations with the Barkovich magnetic resonance imaging scores of the proton density-weighted basal ganglia, watershed, and combined basal ganglia/watershed regions. The susceptibility-weighted imaging categorical grading scale may aid in predicting neurologic outcomes after hypoxic-ischemic injuries. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Accurate assessment of probiotics with targeted anti-Salmonella activity requires suitable models accounting for both, microbe-microbe and host-microbe interactions in gut environments.

Notably, bortezomib exerts potent therapeutic efficacy in mice be

Notably, bortezomib exerts potent therapeutic efficacy in mice bearing AML1-ETO9a-driven leukemia. These data show that C-KIT-pHsp90 beta-Apaf-1 cascade is critical for some malignant cells to evade apoptosis, and the clinical therapeutic potentials of bortezomib in C-KIT-driven neoplasms should be further explored.”
“The performance of scoring tools to select clinical vignettes for presentation at academic

meetings has never been assessed.\n\nTo measure the psychometric properties of two scoring tools used to select clinical vignettes and to determine which elements are most helpful.\n\nProspective observational study.\n\nParticipants submitting clinical vignette abstracts, Society of General Internal Medicine annual meetings (2006-2007).\n\nThe 2006 scoring tool had three criteria (clarity, significance, and relevance) with brief general DZNeP descriptors. The 2007 modified tool had five criteria (clarity, significance, relevance, teaching value, and overall assessment) with more

detailed descriptors.\n\nA total of 938 clinical vignette abstracts were submitted (484 in 2006; 454 in 2007); 59.5% (n = 288) were accepted for presentation. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.81 for the 2006 three-item tool and 0.95 for the 2007 modified five-item tool. Simplifying the five-item 2007 tool to three items (relevance, teaching value, overall assessment) yielded a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.95. The agreement between the number of clinical vignettes accepted for presentation (2007) using the average score of the five items Linsitinib in vivo with the number that would have been accepted using the simplified three items (relevance, teaching value, overall assessment) was almost perfect, with kappa 0.89 (95% confidence interval, 0.85 to 0.93).\n\nBoth scoring tools performed well, but a simplified tool with three items (relevance, teaching value, and overall assessment) and detailed descriptors was optimal; the simplified tool could improve the reviewer efficiency Dinaciclib supplier and quality of clinical vignettes

presented at national meetings.”
“In this study we have developed an index for assessing trophic status and water quality in transitional aquatic ecosystems of Southern Europe. The index has been developed from the water quality index of the U.S. National Sanitation Foundation and integrates the main causal factors (inorganic nutrients), the key biological elements (primary producers) and indicator of effects (oxygen) of eutrophication. Six main variables have been used: relative coverage of benthic phanerogams and opportunistic macroalgae species, and concentrations of dissolved oxygen, phytoplankton chlorophyll-a, dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus. Non-linear functions are used to transform each measured variable into its quality value.

After intravenous administration of gadolinium the mass showed pr

After intravenous administration of gadolinium the mass showed progressively increasing homogeneous enhancement. The lesion was excised without complication and there

was no evidence of recurrence at the 10-month follow-up. Copyright (C) 2009 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Cell mechanics play a key role in several fundamental biological processes, such as migration, proliferation, differentiation and tissue morphogenesis. In addition, many diseased conditions of the cell are correlated with altered cell Napabucasin clinical trial mechanics, as in the case of cancer progression. For this there is much interest in methods that can map mechanical properties with a sub-cell resolution. Here, we demonstrate an inverted pulsed opto-acoustic microscope (iPOM) that operates in the 10 to 100 GHz range. These frequencies allow mapping quantitatively cell structures Vorinostat purchase as thin as 10 nm and resolving the fibrillar details of cells. Using this non-invasive all-optical system, we produce high-resolution images

based on mechanical properties as the contrast mechanisms, and we can observe the stiffness and adhesion of single migrating stem cells. The technique should allow transferring the diagnostic and imaging abilities of ultrasonic imaging to the single-cell scale, thus opening new avenues for cell biology and biomaterial sciences.”
“Background: The consistent association between obesity and colorectal cancer is thought to be explained by metabolic disturbances common, but not exclusive, to the obese.\n\nMethods: We assessed the relation between metachronous neoplasia and the components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) as defined by the National Cholesterol CX-6258 in vivo Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III in 2,392 participants of two previously conducted chemoprevention trials. Waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, trigylcerides, high-density lipoprotein, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured at baseline.\n\nResults:

MetS classification was associated with increased odds of metachronous neoplasia among women [odds ratio (OR), 1.37; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.01-1.85] but not among men (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.81-1.21). High waist circumference in men (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.15-1.72) and women (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.05-1.90) and elevated fasting glucose in women (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.09-1.96), as defined by Adult Treatment Panel III cutpoints, were associated with increased odds, whereas none of the other criteria were independently associated with metachronous neoplasia. When each trait was evaluated using quartiles, elevated glucose among women and large waist circumference among men were significantly associated with metachronous lesions.

We tested the effect of this cytokine family on the angiopoietin

We tested the effect of this cytokine family on the angiopoietin (Ang)-Tie system, which is

involved in blood vessel maturation, stabilization, Milciclib and regression. Results: Oncostatin M (OSM) increased Ang2 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells via Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation. Furthermore, OSM induced Ang2 expression in macrovascular endothelial cells isolated from the human aorta and in microvascular endothelial cells isolated from human heart. Our in vivo experiments revealed that mRNA expression of Ang2 in hearts of mice injected with OSM increased significantly, and levels of OSM mRNA significantly correlated with mRNA levels of Ang2 in human hearts. In addition, OSM increased the expression of its own receptors, gp130 and OSM receptor, in endothelial cells in vitro and in mice in vivo, and levels of OSM mRNA significantly correlated with mRNA levels of gp130 and OSM receptor in human hearts. Conclusion:

Our data, showing the effects of OSM on the Ang-Tie system in endothelial cells, in hearts of mice, and in human heart tissue, provide yet another link between inflammation and angiogenesis.”
“Background\n\nGastrointestinal (GI)-specific anxiety (GSA) has been proposed to influence symptom severity and quality of life (QOL) in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The Visceral Sensitivity Index (VSI) is a Ulixertinib nmr recently developed, reliable and valid measure of GSA. Our aim was to evaluate the association between GSA, GI symptom severity, and QOL in IBS patients.\n\nMethods\n\nSixty healthy subjects and 306 patients fulfilling the Rome II criteria for IBS were studied. Demographic and disease-related factors were assessed. Patients completed VSI and GI Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) and questionnaires to determine psychological symptom severity (Hospital Anxiety and Depression

Scale), QOL (Short Fer-1 chemical structure form 36), and presence of functional GI disorders (Rome II Modular Questionnaire).\n\nKey Results\n\nCompared with healthy subjects, patients with IBS had more severe GSA (34.7 +/- 16.9 vs. 2.2 +/- 4.4 [mean +/- standard deviation]; P < 0.0001). In the IBS group, more severe GSA was seen in patients with more severe GI symptoms (P < 0.0001), general anxiety (P < 0.0001) and depression (P < 0.0001), and with lower socioeconomic status (P < 0.05). In a regression analysis, GSA was the strongest predictor for GI symptom severity (GSRS total score), followed by number of Rome II diagnoses, presence of meal-related IBS symptoms, and gender (R2 = 0.34). Gastrointestinal-specific anxiety was also, together with general anxiety, depression, socioeconomic status, and gender, found to be independently associated with mental QOL (R2 = 0.62).

71) and between tissue elastance and ventilated alveolar area (R

71) and between tissue elastance and ventilated alveolar area (R = -0.72) were strong.\n\nConclusions: The pattern of lung response caused by intravenous Mch and Ova are fundamentally different. Although inhaled Mch induces a heterogeneous lung response similar to that observed with intravenous allergen, these similar patterns are due to different mechanisms.”
“Alzheimers disease neuropathology RG-7388 mouse is characterized by neuronal death, amyloid -peptide deposits and neurofibrillary tangles composed of paired helical filaments of tau protein. Although crucial for our understanding of the pathogenesis of Alzheimers disease, the molecular mechanisms linking amyloid -peptide and paired helical filaments remain unknown.

Here, we show that amyloid -peptide-induced nitro-oxidative damage promotes the nitrotyrosination of the glycolytic enzyme triosephosphate isomerase in human neuroblastoma cells. Consequently, nitro-triosephosphate isomerase

was found to be present in brain slides from double transgenic mice overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein and presenilin 1, and in Alzheimers disease patients. Higher levels of nitro-triosephosphate isomerase (P 0.05) were detected, by Western GSK923295 mouse blot, in immunoprecipitates from hippocampus (9 individuals) and frontal cortex (13 individuals) of Alzheimers disease patients, compared with healthy subjects (4 and 9 individuals, respectively). Triosephosphate isomerase nitrotyrosination decreases the glycolytic flow. Moreover, during its isomerase activity, it triggers the production of

the highly neurotoxic Screening Library ic50 methylglyoxal (n 4; P 0.05). The bioinformatics simulation of the nitration of tyrosines 164 and 208, close to the catalytic centre, fits with a reduced isomerase activity. Human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells overexpressing double mutant triosephosphate isomerase (Tyr164 and 208 by Phe164 and 208) showed high methylglyoxal production. This finding correlates with the widespread glycation immunostaining in Alzheimers disease cortex and hippocampus from double transgenic mice overexpressing amyloid precursor protein and presenilin 1. Furthermore, nitro-triosephosphate isomerase formed large -sheet aggregates in vitro and in vivo, as demonstrated by turbidometric analysis and electron microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy studies have demonstrated that nitro-triosephosphate isomerase binds tau monomers and induces tau aggregation to form paired helical filaments, the characteristic intracellular hallmark of Alzheimers disease brains. Our results link oxidative stress, the main etiopathogenic mechanism in sporadic Alzheimers disease, via the production of peroxynitrite and nitrotyrosination of triosephosphate isomerase, to amyloid -peptide-induced toxicity and tau pathology.”
“Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important pathogen commonly implicated in nosocomial infections. The occurrence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) P.