Is this uncertainty due to the petering-out of the rock record (a

Is this uncertainty due to the petering-out of the rock record (and the fossil-destroying metamorphic alteration to which the older surviving rocks have been subjected), or, rather, does the fossil record, as now known, evidence the true evolutionary history of this process? The Archean fossil record holds the answer. Fossils classed

as Bacteria Incertae Sedis—that is, fossil prokaryotes of the Bacterial Domain that cannot be referred with certainty to a particular bacterial group—are known throughout the geological record. Such remnants constitute the great majority of the fossils now known from Archean-age APO866 order rocks. Owing to the geological recycling HDAC inhibitor discussed above, only about 5% of rocks exposed at the Earth’s surface date from the Archean (Garrels and Mackenzie 1971) and, accordingly, the record of Archean fossils is sparse, in the interval between 2,500 and 3,500 Ma reported from only some 40 rock units

and comprising only six broad bacterium-like morphotypes (Schopf 2006). Of these geological units, 14 date from the interval between 3,200 and 3,500 million years ago, evidence that well documents the existence of microbe-level life this early in Earth history. For virtually all such ancient microbes, the uncertainty in their classification stems from their morphological similarity both to cyanobacteria and non-cyanobacterial bacteria. Given such uncertainty, however, they cannot resolve the question of the time of O2-producing photosynthesis. The Archean fossil microbes most studied are those of the ~3,465-Ma-old Apex chert of northwestern, Western Australia (Schopf 1992a, 1993, 1999; Schopf et al. 2002, 2007, 2010). Shown in Fig. 6 are specimens of Primavifilum amoenum, one of 11 taxa of microorganisms described from this unit (Schopf 1993). MycoClean Mycoplasma Removal Kit These microscopic fossils, and many, but not all, of the ten other taxa reported from the deposit,

are “cyanobacterium-like” in their morphology and cellular anatomy (e.g., compare Fig. 6a through c with Fig. 4a and c). Nevertheless, because of microbial mimicry—the occurrence of more or less identical morphologies in taxa of oxygenic and non-oxygen-producing microbes (Schopf 1992b, 1999)—organismal and cellular morphology, in and of themselves, cannot provide firm evidence of the physiological capabilities of such very ancient microbes (Schopf 1993). What is needed to resolve such uncertainty is an Archean fossil record like that of the Proterozoic, one sufficiently continuous and well documented that it unambiguously links younger fossils of well-established affinities to their older, and typically less well-preserved, evolutionary precursors. Fig. 6 Thin section-embedded filamentous microbes from the ~3,465-Ma-old Apex chert of northwestern Western Australia.

Later in Urbana, I was hunting for a strong light for my experime

Later in Urbana, I was hunting for a strong light for my experiments and I was touring the university with a power meter. Govindjee said he had just the thing

and disappeared into the heirlooms cupboard. He came back with something that was certainly of great age and sentimental value and looked like it had come from a pre-war setup or possibly a watchtower at Joliet prison. He cranked it up and pointed it at my hand-held power ITF2357 meter which duly melted as all the hair on the back of my hand was incinerated: clearly a portable death ray lamp. I politely declined the offer (and went back to nicking the big Kodak projector from the Chemistry lecture theatre). Second impression: Gov is helpful and sentimental but can be “dangerous”. When I turned up in Japan in 1983 to follow up on my identification of the thermoluminecence bands of the year before, Govindjee and Gernot Renger were there. I published several articles, some with G and G, and we had a lot of fun (see Rutherford et al. 1984). Indeed fun was had out of the lab as well as Raf inhibitor in: with G, G and me, our respective wives, Rajni, Eva and Agnes and our enormously hospitable Japanese hosts, Inoue san and the gang. I have good memories of parties in and around Tokyo and of course in Indian restaurants. And with Gov smoking a fat cigar*: Third impression: Gov knows how to enjoy himself and entertain

his friends. (*An exchange at a party in Japan: Bill to Gov: “you see this (obviously chocolate) ice cream”? Gov: “yes?” Bill: “well it was vanilla until you lit up that cheroot!” [We all know that Govindjee stopped smoking around that time… JJE-R.]) I could go on about the famous incident at the hot baths in Hakone but this is not the time for discussing the combination of Japanese bathing culture, Govindjee’s photographic mania and some unexpected optical phemonena involving the refraction of light through water. I will leave that to your imagination. Many of us still have copies of the

photos stored away. Forth impression: Govindjee likes to preserve history (in the Thiamet G form of photos). All the best, Gov, keep on with your enthusiasm, your helpfulness, your sentimentality, your photography, and keep on enjoying yourself. Richard Sayre Senior Research Scientist Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM As an early stage assistant professor I had the privilege to work with Govindjee for the first time. He brought incredible excitement, innovation and energy to our joint project. My students could hardly keep up with him. As I came to know Govindjee, I realized he had always been like this even after his retirement from Illinois. There are few who have been so impactful on the field and the early careers of young scientists in photosynthesis. I hope we can all aspire to his model. Best wishes for your 80th birthday. [It is fitting to mention here the extensive collaborations that Sayre and Govindjee had.

A higher surface area i e 324 mm2 of the cover slip allowed enha

A higher surface area i.e. 324 mm2 of the cover slip allowed enhanced biofilm formation by approximately ALK inhibitor ~1 log on the cover slip in comparison to the microtiter plate (surface area = 32 mm2). Estimation of bacterial numbers in untreated biofilms at the air–liquid interface showed an increase, with a peak on 5th day (9.09 ± 0.15 Log10 CFU/ml) of

incubation, after which the biofilm bacterial counts decreased progressively (Figure 4). In biofilm treated with both phage and cobalt salt a mean log reduction of ~5 and ~ 2 logs was observed in comparison to the groups treated with phage or iron antagonizing molecule alone. The growth and treatment efficacy of biofilm formed at the air–liquid interface was ~1-2 logs better in comparison to biofilms grown

in microtiter plates therefore for further experiments biofilm were grown on glass coverslips at the air–liquid interface. On 3rd and 7th day, the bacterial viability in the treated/untreated biofilms was assessed by fluorescent microscopy. Figure 4 Kinetics of biofilm formation (on cover slips) by K. pneumoniae B5055 grown in minimal media (M9) supplemented with 10  μM FeCl 3 and treated with 500  μM cobalt salt (CoSO 4 ) and bacteriophage (KPO1K2) alone as well as in combination. **p < 0.005 [(10 μM FeCl3 +500 μM CoSO4 + Ø(KPO1K2) vs selleck chemical 10 μM FeCl3/10 μM FeCl3+ 500 μM CoSO4/10 μM FeCl3+ Ø(KPO1K2)], *p < 0.05 [(10 μM FeCl3 +500 μM CoSO4 + Ø(KPO1K2) vs 10 μM FeCl3+ 500 μM CoSO4], #p < 0.005 [(10 μM FeCl3 +500 μM CoSO4 + Ø(KPO1K2) vs 10 μM FeCl3/10 μM FeCl3+ Ø(KPO1K2)]. Assessment of fluorescent

stained biofilms on coverslip The LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability Kit has a mixture of SYTO® 9 green-flourescence nucleic acid stain (for intact live bacteria) and propidium iodide red flourescence nucleic acid stain (for membrane damaged or killed bacteria). Two types of cells were seen, green cells represented the intact or viable cells, red stained cells represented damaged or killed bacterial cells after treatment while yellow regions below showed the presence of both red and green coloured cells. As shown in [Figure 5(a)] a 3rd day biofilm consisting of sparsely populated green coloured rods formed in the iron supplemented media in comparison to 7th day old thicker and densely populated green coloured biofilm [Figure 5(a´)]. On the other hand, biofilm grown in additional cobalt supplemented media showed a lesser confluent growth of green colored cells along with some yellow and red cells on 3rd day [Figure 5(b)] as well as on 7th day [Figure 5(b´)] in comparison to biofilms grown in iron supplemented media.

Katsura I, Tsugita A: Purification and characterization of the ma

Katsura I, Tsugita A: Purification and characterization of the major protein and the terminator protein of the bacteriophage

lambda tail. Virology 1977,76(1):129–145.PubMedCrossRef 54. Buchwald M, Murialdo H, Siminovitch L: The morphogenesis of bacteriophage lambda. II. Identification of the principal structural proteins. Virology 1970,42(2):390–400.PubMedCrossRef 55. Buchwald M, Steed-Glaister P, Siminovitch L: The morphogenesis of bacteriophage lambda. I. Purification and characterization of learn more lambda heads and lambda tails. Virology 1970,42(2):375–389.PubMedCrossRef 56. Katsura I: Tail assembly and injection. In Lambda II. Edited by: Hendrix R, Roberts J, Stahl FW, Weisberg R. Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory; 1983:331–346. 57. Xu J, Hendrix RW, Duda RL: Conserved translational frameshift in dsDNA Selleckchem BIBW2992 bacteriophage tail assembly genes. Mol Cell 2004,16(1):11–21.PubMedCrossRef

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Cancer Res 1947, 7:468–80 23 Lokich JJ: The frequency


Cancer Res 1947, 7:468–80. 23. Lokich JJ: The frequency

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antibody. Logical Biol 2002, 2:2–10. 30. Radulescu RT, Kehe K: Antiproliferative MCR peptides block physical interaction of insulin with retinoblastoma protein (RB) in human lung cancer cells. arXiv 2007, 0706.1991v1 [q-bio.SC]. http://​arxiv.​org/​abs/​0706.​1991 31. Radulescu RT: From insulin, retinoblastoma protein and the insulin receptor to a new model on growth factor specificity: the nucleocrine pathway. J Endocrinol 1995, 146:365–8.PubMedCrossRef 32. Mattarocci S, Abbruzzese Montelukast Sodium C, Mileo AM, Visca P, Antoniani B, Alessandrini G, Facciolo F, Felsani A, Radulescu RT, Paggi MG: Intracellular presence of insulin and its phosphorylated receptor in non-small cell lung cancer. J Cell Physiol 2009, 221:766–70.PubMedCrossRef 33. Devoll RE, Li

W, Woods KV, Pinero GJ, Butler WT, Farach-Carson MC, Happonen RP: Osteopontin (OPN) distribution in premalignant and malignant lessions of oral epithelium and expression in cell lines derived from squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. J Oral Pathol Med 1999, 28:97–101.PubMedCrossRef 34. Junaid A, Moon MC, Harding GEJ, Zahradka P: Osteopontin localizes to the nucleus of 293 cells and associates with polo-like kinase-1. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2007, 292:919–926.CrossRef 35. McAllister SS, Gifford AM, Greiner AL, Kelleher SP, Saelzler MP, Ince TA, Reinhardt F, Harris LN, Hylander BL, Repasky EA, Weinberg RA: Systemic endocrine instigation of indolent tumor growth requires osteopontin. Cell 2008, 133:994–1005.PubMedCrossRef 36. Li M, Aliotta JM, Asara JM, Wu Q, Dooner MS, Tucker LD, Wells A, Quesenberry PJ, Ramratnam B: Intercellular transfer of proteins as identified by stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture. J Biol Chem 2010, 285:6285–97.PubMedCrossRef 37. Radulescu RT, Jaques G: Selective inhibition of human lung cancer cell growth by peptides derived from retinoblastoma protein.

Figure 10 FE simulations (a) Total elastic energy of wires and d

Figure 10 FE simulations. (a) Total elastic energy of wires and dots as a function of the Si content. (b) Three-dimensional

maps of biaxial strain for pyramidal dots and wires for a Si content of 10%. (c) Average biaxial strain for wires and dots as a function of the Si content. (d) Total strain + surface energy for wires and dots as a function of volume. (e) Relative difference of the curves shown in (d). Wires and islands were modeled by realistic three-dimensional geometries (sketched in Figure  10b), for a Si composition ranging between 0 and 1. Both wires and islands have been assumed to be bounded by 113 facets and grown on a Ge(001) substrate. The aspect ratios of dots/wires were taken from STM measurements. Figure  10a shows the composition dependence of the total elastic energy density e relax for wires and islands. e relax is the residual strain energy stored selleck inhibitor in a SiGe island(wire) and in the Ge substrate after relaxation and normalized to the island(wire) volume. As evident, the dots and the wires show almost the same elastic energy density for low Si contents, PI3K Inhibitor Library whereas the elastic energy of the dots becomes lower for x ≳0.75. Indeed, Figure  10c shows that, at

high Si concentration, the strain relaxation is more efficient for the dots. The residual tensile strain obtained from FE calculations for a Si content x = 0.1, i.e., the composition determined by Raman spectroscopy, is found to be ε = +0.27%. To validate the model, it is interesting to compare this value with an experimental estimate of the strain. It is well-known the frequency position of the Si-Ge Raman mode depends on the residual biaxial strain as [27] (1) By

using the position of the SiGe alloy peak determined in our spectra, i.e., ω Si – Ge = 398.6 cm-1, we obtained a residual strain of +0.25%, a value which closely matches the result of the simulations. In order to discuss the relative stability of dots and PTK6 wires, the strain energy term has to be combined with the surface energy contribution to define the total-energy gain associated to the formation of a three-dimensional dot/wire of volume V, namely (2) where e WL is the strain energy density of a flat pseudomorphic Si0.1Ge0.9 film grown on Ge(001), γ S and γ B are, respectively, the surface energies of the lateral 113 facets and of the Ge(001) face of the substrate. C S  = SV -2/3 and C B  = BV -2/3 are shape-dependent factors which depend on the relative extension of the area of the lateral facets, S, and of the base area, B, of dots/wires. Previous results have shown that both the tensile strained Ge(113) [28] and the Ge(001) [29] surfaces have roughly the same surface energy value of about 65 meV/Å2; therefore, for the sake of simplicity, we assume γ S  = γ B  = 65 meV/Å2.

Environ Microbiol 76: 7261 (2010) Figures 3d and 13 Fig 13 T

Microbiol. 76: 7261 (2010). Figures 3d and 13. Fig. 13 Trichoderma parareesei. a Pustules. b–h Conidiophores and phialides

(Arrows in e, h show intercalary phialides). i. Conidia.. j. Chlamydospores. All from SNA. a, d, e from G.J.S. 10–168; b, f, g, i from G.J.S. 07–26; c, from G.J.S. 04–41; h, j from G.J.S. 04–250. Scale bars: a = 0.5 mm; b–d, j = 20 μm; e–i = 10 μm Teleomorph: none known Ex-type culture: C.P.K. 717 = CBS 125925 = TUB F-1066 Typical sequences: ITS HM466668 (G.J.S. 04–41), Tigecycline ic50 tef1 GQ354353 Trichoderma parareesei is sister to H. jecorina/T. reesei in a clade that includes also T. gracile (Druzhinina et al. 2012). Trichoderma parareesei is a pantropical/subtropical clonal species that shares a common ancestor with the holomorphic T. reesei (H. jecorina teleomorph).

Following is a redescription of T. parareesei based on newly discovered American collections: Optimum temperature for growth on PDA (Difco) and SNA 30–35°C; JAK phosphorylation on PDA and SNA slightly faster at 35°C, completely filling a 9-cm-diam Petri plate within 48–72 h; on SNA filling a 9-cm-diam Petri within 96 h at 25–35°C. Conidia forming on PDA within 48 h at 25–35°C; on SNA within 72–96 h, rarely as early as 48 h. An often intense yellow pigment diffusing on PDA within (48–)72 h at 25–35°C. After one wk on PDA at 25°C under light a 9-cm-diam Petri plate completely filled with yellow-green conidia in a dense lawn in a few obscure concentric rings; on SNA conidia forming in a few obscure concentric rings in the aerial mycelium and in minute, often confluent, cottony pustules; individual conidiophores visible within pustules, pustules lacking sterile hairs or long protruding, terminally fertile conidiophores. Pustules formed of intertwined hyphae. Conidiophores arising along hyphae of the pustule, typically comprising a

long central axis with up to several levels of solitary phialides before Interleukin-2 receptor commencement of lateral branching; lateral branches often comprising a single cell terminated by a single phialide or up to ca. four cells in length with solitary phialides arising near the tip and single cells terminated by a solitary phialide toward the base at the main axis; intercalary phialides common (Fig. 13e, f, h). Phialides (n = 150) lageniform, swollen or not at the middle, straight, less frequently sinuous, asymmetric or hooked, (3.2–)5.7–9.0(−13.0) μm long, (2.0–)2.5–3.2(−4.0) μm at the widest point, L/W = (1.1–)2.0–3.2(−5.0), base (1.0–)1.5–2.5(−3.2) μm, arising from a cell (1.5–)2.2–3.2(−4.5) μm wide. Intercalary phialides common. Conidia (n = 191) ellipsoidal to oblong, (3.2–)3.7–4.7(−6.2) × (1.7–)2.5–3.0(−3.5) μm, L/W = (1.2–)1.4–1.8(−2.7) (95% ci: 4.1–4.2 × 2.5–2.6 μm, L/W = 1.5–1.6), green, smooth. Chlamydospores not common, subglobose to pyriform, mainly terminal.

In the van Ruler trial a total of 232 patients with severe intra-

In the van Ruler trial a total of 232 patients with severe intra-abdominal infections (116 on-demand and 116 planned) were randomized. In planned relaparotomy group, relaparotomies were performed

every 36 to 48 hours after the index laparotomy to inspect, drain, lavage, and perform other necessary abdominal interventions for residual peritonitis or new infectious focus. In on-Demand relaparotomy group, relaparotomies were only performed in patients with clinical deterioration or lack of clinical improvement with a likely intra-abdominal cause. Patients in the on-demand relaparotomy group did not have a significantly lower rate of adverse outcomes compared with patients in the Akt phosphorylation planned relaparotomy group learn more but did have a substantial reduction in relaparotomies, health care utilization, and medical costs. Patients in the on-demand group had shorter median intensive care unit stays (7 vs 11 days; P =.001) and shorter median hospital stays (27 vs 35 days; P =.008). Direct medical costs per patient were reduced by 23% using the on-demand strategy. Some studies have investigated open abdomen in intra-abdominal infections and generated great interest and hope [268–270]. In 2007 a randomized study by Robledo and coll. [271] compared open with closed “”on demand”" management of severe peritonitis. During a 24-month period, 40 patients with SSP were admitted for treatment. Although the difference

in the mortality rate (55% vs. 30%) did not reach statistical significance (p < 0.05; chi-square and Fisher exact test), the

relative risk and odds ratio for death were 1.83 and 2.85 times 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl higher in open abdomen patients group. This clinical finding, as evidenced by the clear tendency toward a more favorable outcome for patients in closed open group, led to termination of the study at the first interim analysis. This randomized study from a single institution demonstrates that closed management of the abdomen may be a more rational approach after operative treatment of SSP and questions the recent enthusiasm for the open alternative, which has been based on observational studies. However in this study, the “”open abdomen”" was managed with a non-absorbable polypropylene mesh, without topical negative pressure. Antimicrobial treatment of hospital-acquired intra-abdominal infections Hospital-acquired IAIs are among the most difficult infections to diagnose early and treat effectively. A successful outcome depends on early diagnosis, rapid and appropriate surgical intervention, and the selection of effective antimicrobial regimens. Hospital acquired infections are commonly caused by larger and more resistant flora, and for these infections, complex multidrug regimens are always recommended (Recommendation 1 B). The threat of antimicrobial resistance has been identified as one of the major challenges in the management of complicated IAIs and was already discussed in the previous chapter.

After additionally correcting in several steps for long-term illn

In both the older (56–65 years) and the

younger (18–25 years) employees, no effect was found when compared to the reference age group. Among women, a significant effect was found in the age group of 46–55 years compared with the age group of 26–35 years. After correcting for long-term illness, working hours per week, overtime work, psychological job demands, decision latitude, physically demanding work, work-family Cell Cycle inhibitor conflict

and living situation, no significant effects remained. Table 3 Age as a risk factor for high need for recovery over time   RRa (95% CI) RRb (95% CI) RRc (95% CI) RRd (95% CI) Men  Age (10 years increase) 1.04 (0.96–1.13) 1.02 (0.94–1.10) 1.03 (0.95–1.11) 1.05 (0.97–1.14)  Age (years)   18–25 1.01 (0.59–1.72) 0.98 (0.58–1.67) 1.12 (0.66–1.92) 1.11 (0.65–1.89)   26–35 (ref) 1 1 1 1   36–45 1.30 (1.07–1.58) 1.29 (1.06–1.56) 1.24 (1.02–1.51) 1.24 (1.03–1.51)   46–55 1.25 (1.03–1.52) 1.20 (0.99–1.46) 1.21 (0.99–1.47) 1.24 (1.02–1.51)   56–65 0.87 (0.62–1.21) 0.84 (0.60–1.17) 0.88 (0.63–1.28) 0.91 (0.65–1.28) Women  Age (10 years increase) 1.12 (0.99–1.26) 1.09 (0.97–1.23) 1.06 (0.94–1.19) 1.05 (0.93–1.18)  Age (years)   18–25 0.86 (0.54–1.36) 0.88 (0.55–1.41) 0.91 (0.57–1.46) 0.93 (0.58–1.49)   26–35 (ref) 1 1 1 1   36–45 1.00 (0.80–1.24) 0.99 (0.80–1.23) 0.96 (0.77–1.19) 0.93 (0.74–1.16)   46–55 1.36 (1.04–1.77) 1.28 (0.98–1.68) 1.20 (0.92–1.57) 1.22

(0.93–1.59)   56–65 0.96 (0.50–1.83) 0.90 (0.47–1.71) 0.87 (0.46–1.67) 0.85 (0.44–1.62) aRR adjusted for educational level and smoking bRR additionally adjusted for long-term illness cRR additionally adjusted for hours per week, working overtime, psychological job demands, decision latitude and physically demanding work dRR additionally adjusted for work-family conflict and living situation Discussion The objective of this study was Endonuclease to investigate the impact of increasing age on the need for recovery over time, while taking relevant confounding factors into account. With regard to the representativeness of our study for the general working population, it should be noted that we excluded shift workers, and therefore the results of this study are only applicable to day workers. The reason for excluding shift workers was that the relationship between age and need for recovery may be distorted by the specific work schedule the employee is involved in, because in general shift workers report higher need for recovery levels compared to day workers (Jansen et al.


Most Galunisertib of the strains in Focus F were clustered together, including 14 strains for MT76 and the other six strains presenting in 6 MTs. On the other hand, strains from the same focus were dispersed in the cluster tree. For example, strains isolated from Focus G were dispersed in complex 1, 3 and 4, and strains from Focus C were scattered in complex 1 and 4. MLVA comparison of Yersinia pestis in Yulong and

the adjacent foci Five strains isolated from Yulong, Yunnan had the same MT (MT17: 2-2-2-4-4-7-7-6-2-4-3-3-3-5). Three MTs with a difference in only one locus from MT17 were as follows: MT18 (2-2-2-4-4-7-7-7-2-4-3-3-3-5), including the strains from Foci C and G, had one copy difference on locus M58 with MT17; MT16 (2-2-2-4-4-7-7-6-2-4-3-2-3-5), including a strain which was isolated from Focus H, had one copy difference on locus M51 with MT17; MT29 (2-2-2-4-4-7-7-6-2-4-3-3-3-4), including a strain which was isolated from Focus C, had one copy difference on locus M37 with

MT17. The geographic locations of the natural plague foci adjacent to Yulong were C, E, and F (Figure 3). All the strains from Focus F were Orientalis, and the strains from Foci C, E and Yulong (Focus P) were Antiqua. A further MT comparisons between the Yulong strains and the strains isolated from Foci C and E were as follows: compared with Focus C, It was found that the five Yulong strains and five Focus C strains (belonging to MT29 to MT 33,) were clustered into group D (Figure 1); compared with Focus E, we found one copy Protease Inhibitor Library difference located at three loci (M66, M58, and M54) in MT35 (major MT) and one copy difference located at four loci (M66, M58, M54,

and M49) in MT23 (major MT); The MST analysis (Figure 2) showed that strains from Foci P, C, and E had a close relationship, and almost all strains belonged to one group. Discussion In 2001, Klevytska et al. performed a systematic, whole genome analysis of Y. pestis Angiogenesis inhibitor CO92, and found that TRSs were widespread and randomly distributed in the bacterial chromosomes and plasmids [12]. Subsequent studies had shown that MLVA could distinguish Y. pestis isolated from different natural plague foci [13–15, 20]. Our results showed that the loci selected in this study can distinguish the strains from different natural plague foci and even from the same focus. 214 Y. pestis strains used in this study were divided into 85 MTs. Simpson’s diversity index was 0.9790, indicating that the probability of two unrelated strains being characterized as the same type was 2.10% (1 – 0.9790), showing high resolution and the combination of these 14 loci could be used as a typing method for Y. pestis with the generally accepted probability of 5% of type I errors [21].