Since the expression of efflux pumps provides the cell with the means to cope with these compounds, it could be expected that those clinical buy Epacadostat isolates already have in their cell membrane the necessary number of efflux pump proteins, thus, increases in efflux pump genes expression may have already taken place. Also, no significant differentiation could https://www.selleckchem.com/products/gdc-0994.html be established between EtBrCW-positive and EtBrCW-negative
isolates at the level of individual EP gene expression (Table 2). On the other hand, ATCC25923, which showed only basal efflux activity on the fluorometric assay, responded to drug pressure in a completely different manner, showing a significant overexpression of all efflux pump genes tested in the presence of EtBr and the highest expression level of norB following exposure to ciprofloxacin (Table 2). The distinct behavior observed for the clinical isolates as compared to the antibiotic fully susceptible Selleck MI-503 reference strain further support the hypothesis that the clinical strains are primed to efflux noxious substances. Increasing the concentration of ciprofloxacin to ¾ of the MIC augmented the expression rate of the already overexpressed genes with the additional overexpression of other efflux pump genes. These results show a clear concentration level above which there is an inducement of expression of the same or additional efflux pump genes. This response
could reflect the involvement of these genes in a global stress response regulon, or simply be the result of a substrate-responsive regulation. Future work should clarify this aspect. A previous study described the predominance of norB overexpression among a collection of S. aureus bloodstream isolates. For this collection, when a single
efflux pump gene was overexpressed, it corresponded mostly to norA, whereas norB and norC were prevalent when two or more efflux pump genes were overexpressed . In our work, amongst the clinical isolates that Resveratrol overexpressed efflux pump genes, four showed overexpression of a single gene, either norB, mdeA or mepA. Only two isolates showed overexpression of more than one efflux pump gene. Remarkably, norA was the only gene for which no overexpression was detected among the clinical isolates, suggesting that other efflux pumps can have a more relevant role in the resistance to fluoroquinolones and EtBr in S. aureus than the one attributed to date. Nevertheless, exposure of ATCC25923 to EtBr, resulted in the overexpression of all efflux pump genes tested, including norA. This result does not oppose to our previous finding that the prolonged exposure of this strain to increasing concentrations of EtBr resulted in high overexpression of solely norA , inasmuch as it strengthens the premise that exposure of the same strain to a given drug over different ranges of concentrations and/or time may result in the activation of different efflux systems.