(c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “
“In this study

(c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In this study we examined whether in vivo treatments with Bcl-2 inhibitor HA14-1 can affect

the function of vasopressinergic system of PP2 purchase rat. HA14-1 is a novel organic compound that has micromolar affinity for Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and acts as a mimetic of BH3-only proteins by antagonizing the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins and triggering Bax-dependent apoptosis. We found that intrahypothalamic injections of HA14-1 did not induce apoptosis of vasopressin (VP) cells of supraoptic nucleus, but led to activation of VP synthesis and release, resulting in decreased diuresis. Our data has also demonstrated that injections of HA14-1 increased phospho-MEK1/2, phospho-CREB and phospho-Elk-1 levels in magnocellular neurons.

Thus we propose that injections of HA14-1 into the hypothalamus do not lead to neuronal death, but change the functional activity of VP neurons of hypothalamus centres. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In this work, we ask whether the simultaneous movement of agonist and antagonist among surface receptors (i.e. continually associating and dissociating from individual receptors according to specified kinetics) has any unexpected consequences for G-protein activation and receptor desensitization. A Monte Carlo model framework find more is used to track the diffusion and reaction of individual receptors, allowing the requirement for receptors and G-proteins or receptors check details and kinases to find each other by diffusion (collision coupling)

to be implemented explicitly. We find that at constant agonist occupancy the effect of an antagonist on both G-protein activation and the ratio of G-protein activation to receptor desensitization can be modulated by varying the antagonist dissociation kinetics. The explanation for this effect is that antagonist dissociation kinetics influence the ability of agonists to access particular receptors and thus reach G-proteins and kinases near those receptors. Relevant parameter ranges for observation of these effects are identified. These results are useful for understanding experimental and therapeutic situations when both agonist and antagonist are present, and in addition may offer new insights into insurmountable antagonism. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The psychological oblique effect, a well-known phenomenon that humans and some mammals are more visually sensitive to cardinal (vertical and horizontal) contours than to oblique ones, has commonly been associated with the overrepresentation of cardinal orientations in the visual cortex. In contrast to the oblique effect, however, Essock et al. [E.A. Essock, J.K. DeFord, B.C. Hansen, M.J. Sinai, Oblique stimuli are seen best (not worst!) broad-band stimuli: a horizontal effect, Vision Res.

We first derived

We first derived HKI-272 a partial differential equations model of gas

exchange on a small physiological unit of the lung (approximate to 25 alveoli), which we refer to as a respiratory unit (RU). We next developed a simple model of the acute inflammatory response and implemented its effects within a RU, creating a single RU model. Linking multiple RUs with various ventilation/perfusion ratios and taking into account pulmonary venous blood remixing yielded our lung-scale model. Using the lung-scale model, we explored the predicted effects of inflammation on ventilation/perfusion distribution and the resulting pulmonary venous partial pressure oxygen level during systemic inflammatory stresses. This model represents a first step towards the development of anatomically faithful models of gas exchange and ventilation under a broad range of local and systemic inflammatory stimuli resulting in acute lung injury, such as infection and mechanical strain of lung tissue.

(C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights BAY 1895344 reserved.”
“Zinc is one of trace elements that play essential roles in several cell functions, and is unquestionably important to the normal health and function of the central nervous system. Growing evidence suggests that Zn(2+) can become a pathogenic agent in certain neurological disease states, such as ischemia, seizures, and trauma. The main role of the Zn(2+) may serve as an endogenous neuromodulator in the brain. In the present study, we used the electrophysiology method to investigate the effects of Zn(2+) on the excitability of hippocampus CA1 region. Our results have demonstrated that the Zn(2+) activates the Wistar rat hippocampal CA1 region network by significantly enhancing the spike rate of the spontaneous firing. In addition, Zn(2+) can increase the intrinsic membrane excitability by enhancing the firing rate and half-width of the evoked action potential. Meanwhile, our results also indicate that Zn(2+) can effectively inhibit voltage-dependent

E7080 concentration potassium currents (both transient outward potassium currents and delayed rectifier potassium currents). On the other hand, Zn(2+) also inhibits excitatory neurotransmitter release by decreasing the inter-event interval and the total charge transfer of the excitatory postsynaptic currents. The present results, in combination with other works, suggest that Zn(2+) can influence neuronal excitability, intrinsic membrane excitability and synaptic transmission in the hippocampus CA1 neurons by multiple mechanisms. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.”
“This paper presents results on the design and analysis of a robust genetic Muller C-element. The Muller C-element is a standard logic gate commonly used to synchronize independent processes in most asynchronous electronic circuits.

Such resorbable biomaterial prostheses could serve as growth subs

Such resorbable biomaterial prostheses could serve as growth substrates together with specific siRNA

to foster neuronal regeneration. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to biofunctionalize neuronal prostheses with siRNA. We analyzed neuronal and Schwann cell responses to scrambled siRNA coated polydioxanone polymer filaments designed to imitate pro-regenerative bands of Bfingner for oriented axonal regrowth. With a view to future clinical applications we were especially interested in potentially detrimental side effects. We employed a variety of in vitro methods, including a novel impedance electrode microchamber assay, fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy, metabolic labeling and RT-PCR. AZD1208 order We found that the application of chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles (1) did not affect glial cell motility or (2) axonal growth in contrast to other formulations, (3) only slightly reduced proliferation, and (4) did not induce inflammatory responses that might hamper axonal regeneration. The data suggest that chitosan/siRNA nanoparticle-coated polymer filaments are suitable for use in biohybrid implants with no significant side effects

on neuronal and glial cells. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We have recently demonstrated that human apolipoprotein E (apoE) is required for the infectivity and assembly of hepatitis C virus (HCV) (K.S. Chang, J. Jiang, Z. Cai, and G. Luo, J. Virol. 81:13783-13793, 2007; J. Jiang and G. Luo, J. Virol. 83:12680-12691, 2009). In the present study, we have determined the molecular basis underlying the importance of apoE in HCV assembly. Results derived from mammalian two-hybrid studies demonstrate FRAX597 datasheet a specific interaction between apoE and HCV nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A). The C-terminal third of apoE per se is sufficient for interaction with NS5A. Progressive deletion mutagenesis learn more analysis identified that the C-terminal alpha-helix domain of apoE is important for NS5A binding. The N-terminal receptor-binding domain and

the C-terminal 20 amino acids of apoE are dispensable for the apoE-NS5A interaction. The NS5A-binding domain of apoE was mapped to the middle of the C-terminal alpha-helix domain between amino acids 205 and 280. Likewise, deletion mutations disrupting the apoE-NS5A interaction resulted in blockade of HCV production. These findings demonstrate that the specific apoE-NS5A interaction is required for assembly of infectious HCV. Additionally, we have determined that using different major isoforms of apoE (E2, E3, and E4) made no significant difference in the apoE-NS5A interaction. Likewise, these three major isoforms of apoE are equally compatible with infectivity and assembly of infectious HCV, suggesting that apoE isoforms do not differentially modulate the infectivity and/or assembly of HCV in cell culture.”
“Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in mammals monitor acid sensing and mechanoreception.

“In contrast to mammals, in teleost fish radial

“In contrast to mammals, in teleost fish radial Acalabrutinib order glia persist beyond early development. This persistence parallels the enormous potential of teleosts to continuously generate a large number of new neurons in dozens of specific proliferation zones in the adult brain. In the present study, we characterized in the teleost fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus the immunological properties of radial glia in the corpus cerebelli-a cerebellar subdivision with particularly high proliferative activity-and examined their possible function in the guidance of migrating

young neurons. Radial glia stained immunopositive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin, and in most cases the two intermediate filament proteins co-localized. GFAP immunolabeling combined with immunohistochemistry against the mitotic marker 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) revealed an abundance of elongated BrdU-labeled nuclei closely apposed to, or localized within, GFAP-immunoreactive radial glia. The association of BrdU-labeled nuclei and GFAP-immunoreactive

radial glial fibers was particularly pronounced 2 days after BrdU administration, when the migratory activity of the young cells is highest. When the new cells reach the granular layer, they start expressing the neuronal marker protein Hu C/D, but continue their close association with radial glial fibers. These results suggest the role of radial glia in the guidance of migrating adult-born neurons in the teleostean cerebellum. This function appears to be mediated both by somal translocation and by a glial-guided mode of locomotion. (c) 2012

IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All AZD4547 mouse rights reserved.”
“Mutations in DNA replication initiator PI3K inhibitor genes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes lead to a pleiotropic array of phenotypes, including defects in chromosome segregation, cytokinesis, cell cycle regulation and gene expression. For years, it was not clear whether these diverse effects were indirect consequences of perturbed DNA replication, or whether they indicated that DNA replication initiator proteins had roles beyond their activity in initiating DNA synthesis. Recent work from a range of organisms has demonstrated that DNA replication initiator proteins play direct roles in many cellular processes, often functioning to coordinate the initiation of DNA replication with essential cell-cycle activities. The aim of this review is to highlight these new findings, focusing on the pathways and mechanisms utilized by DNA replication initiator proteins to carry out a diverse array of cellular functions.”
“Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP, also known as amylin) is the major protein component of pancreatic amyloid fibers in type II diabetes and is normally cosecreted with insulin from the beta-cells of the pancreas. IAPP forms amyloid fibrils rapidly at concentrations well below those found in vivo, yet progression of type II diabetes occurs over many years.

In this work we analyzed these features by considering the approa

In this work we analyzed these features by considering the approach proposed by the self-organized criticality theory: we found that networks of dissociated cortical neurons also generate spontaneous

events of spreading C646 in vivo activity, previously observed in cortical slices, in the form of neuronal avalanches. Choosing an appropriate time scale of observation to detect such neuronal avalanches, we studied the dynamics by considering the spontaneous activity during acute recordings in mature cultures and following the development of the network. We observed different behaviors, i.e. sub-critical, critical or super-critical distributions of avalanche sizes and durations, depending on both the age and the development of cultures. In order to clarify this variability, neuronal avalanches were correlated with other statistical parameters describing the global activity of the network. Criticality was found in correspondence to medium synchronization among bursts and high ratio between bursting and spiking activity. Then, the action of specific drugs affecting global

bursting dynamics (i.e. acetylcholine and bicuculline) was investigated to confirm the correlation between criticality and regulated balance between synchronization and variability in the bursting activity. Finally, a computational model of neuronal network was developed in order to interpret the experimental results and understand which parameters (e.g. connectivity, excitability) influence the

distribution of avalanches.

In summary, cortical neurons preserve Galunisertib solubility dmso their capability to self-organize in an effective network even when dissociated and cultured in vitro. The distribution of avalanche features seems to be critical in those cultures displaying medium synchronization among bursts and poor random spiking activity, as confirmed by chemical manipulation experiments and modeling studies. (C) 2008 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The main protease (M-pro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) plays an essential role in the extensive proteolytic processing of the viral polyproteins (pp1a and pp1ab), and it is an important target for anti-SARS drug development. click here It was found that SARS-CoV M-pro exists in solution as an equilibrium of both monomeric and dimeric forms, and the dimeric form is the enzymatically active form. However, the mechanism of SARS-CoV M-pro dimerization, especially the roles of its N-terminal seven residues (N-finger) and its unique C-terminal domain in the dimerization, remain unclear. Here we report that the SARS-CoV M-pro C-terminal domain alone (residues 187 to 306; M-pro-C is produced in Escherichia coli in both monomeric and dimeric forms, and no exchange could be observed between them at room temperature. The M-pro-C dimer has a novel dimerization interface.

We used reverse-transfected cell microarrays (RTCM) as an unbiase

We used reverse-transfected cell microarrays (RTCM) as an unbiased systems biology approach to systematically analyze the effects of HHV-8 genes on the NF-kappa B signaling

pathway. All HHV-8 genes individually (n = 86) and, additionally, all K and latent genes in pairwise combinations (n = 231) were investigated. Statistical analyses of more than 14,000 transfections identified ORF75 as a novel and confirmed K13 as a known HHV-8 activator of NF-kappa B. K13 and ORF75 showed cooperative NF-kappa B activation. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of ORF75 expression demonstrated that this gene contributes significantly to NF-kappa B activation in HHV-8-infected Selleckchem SB431542 cells. Furthermore, our approach confirmed K10.5 as an NF-kappa B inhibitor and newly identified K1 as

an inhibitor of both K13- and ORF75-mediated NF-kappa B activation. All results obtained with RTCM were confirmed with classical transfection experiments. Our work describes the first successful application of RTCM for the systematic analysis of pathofunctions of genes of an infectious agent. With this approach, ORF75 and K1 were identified as novel HHV-8 regulatory molecules on the NF-kappa B signal transduction pathway. The genes identified may be involved in fine-tuning of the balance between latency and lytic replication, since this depends critically on the state of NF-kappa B activity.”
“Mechanosensitivity is a crucial but poorly understood property of the sensory nervous system. Transient selleck screening library receptor potential (TRP) channels, MEK162 datasheet which have been found to be responsible for the detection of other sensory stimuli such as temperature and pungent chemicals, have been suggested to also recognize stretch or pressure to cell membranes. TRPC1 is one candidate from studies in oocytes but evidence in native sensory neurons has been lacking. Therefore,

we have measured an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) levels upon mechanical activation of native mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in culture using hypoosmolar buffer. Our results show that down regulation of TRPC1 with short hairpin RNA results in a 65% reduction of neurons with stretch activated responses. These results implicate a direct or indirect involvement of TRPC1 in the mechanosensitivity of DRG neurons. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 R5 viruses vary extensively in phenotype. Thus, R5 envelopes (env) in the brain tissue of individuals with neurological complications are frequently highly macrophage-tropic. Macrophage tropism correlates with the capacity of the envelope to exploit low CD4 levels for infection. In addition, the presence of an asparagine at residue 283 within the CD4 binding site has been associated with brain-derived envelopes, increased env-CD4 affinity, and enhanced macrophage tropism.

In contrast, tyrosine kinase

In contrast, tyrosine kinase this website inhibitor, genistein, and selective receptor tyrosine kinase (TrkA) inhibitor, K252

alpha did not affect SPTB Numb-mediated neurite outgrowth. MAP kinase inhibitor, PD98059 partially reduced SPTB Numb-mediated neurite outgrowth. Cells expressing SPTB Numbs exhibit increased whole-cell Ca(2+) current densities (ICa) which can be prevented by preincubation of either nifedipine or PD98095. Cells expressing LPTB Numbs expressed little ICa (density) and were not able to grow neurites. Our results indicate that Ca(2+) influx through VGCC may be required for SPTB Numb-mediated neurite outgrowth, suggesting that Numb promotes neuronal differentiation by a mechanism involving PTB domain-specific regulation of Ca(2+) influx Entospletinib and MAP kinase activation. (c) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We studied the effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on angiogenesis in the ischemic boundary area after focal cerebral ischemia. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h. A single dose of VIP was given via i.c.v. injection at the beginning of reperfusion. Immumohistochemistry and Western blotting were performed to assay angiogenesis and brain levels of vascular endothelial growth

factor (VEGF) protein, respectively. In addition, the expression of VEGF and its receptors (flt-1 and flk-1), as well as endothelial proliferation, was measured using rat brain microvascular endothelial cells. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed significant (P<0.05) increases in the numbers of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) positive endothelial cells and microvessels at the boundary of the ischemic lesion in rats treated with VIP compared with rats treated with saline. Western blotting analysis showed that treatment

with VIP significantly (P<0.05) raised VEGF levels in the ischemic hemisphere. In addition, treatment with VIP increased flt-1 and flk-1 immunoreactivity in endothelial cells. In vitro, incubation with VIP significantly (P<0.01) increased the proliferation of endothelial cells and induced the expression of VEGF, flt-1 and flk-1 in endothelial cells. The stimulatory see more effect of VIP on the proliferation of endothelial cells was significantly (P<0.01) inhibited by SU5416, a selective inhibitor of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase. Our data suggest that treatment with VIP enhances angiogenesis in the ischemic brain, and this effect may be mediated by increases in levels of VEGF and its receptors. (c) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The relationship between age-related reductions in the binding potential for the striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) and age-related deficits in olfactory sensitivity was examined in 12 subjects ranging from 36 to 82 years of age.

The yield of BmR1 was increased by 1 center dot 2-fold upon induc

The yield of BmR1 was increased by 1 center dot 2-fold upon induction with see more 1 mmol l-1 IPTG (isopropyl-beta-d-thiogalactoside) compared to using 5 mmol l-1 and showed a further 3 center dot 5-fold increase when the culture was induced twice at the late log phase.


Combination of feeding at a lower mu(set) and twice induction with 1 mmol l-1 IPTG yielded the best result of all variables tested, promising an improved method for BmR1 production.

Significance and Impact of the Study:

This method can be used to increase the production scale of the BmR1 recombinant antigen to meet the increasing demand for Brugia Rapid (TM), a commercial

diagnostic test for detection of brugian filariasis.”
“Fatiguing exercise of the quadriceps femoris muscle degrades postural control in human subjects. The aim of this work was to compare the effects of the fatigue

of the quadriceps femoris induced by voluntary muscular contraction (VC), and by electrical stimulation (ES) superimposed onto voluntary muscular contraction (VC+ES), on postural control https://www.selleckchem.com/products/jq-ez-05-jqez5.html and muscle strength. Fourteen healthy young adults participated in the study. Postural control and muscle strength were evaluated using a stable force platform and an isokinetic dynamometer, respectively, before (PRE condition) and after the completion of each fatiguing exercise (immediately: POST condition; after a 5 min recovery time: POST 5 condition). In POST, both postural Eltanexor price control and muscle strength were impaired by both fatiguing

exercises. However, the impairment was higher for VC than for VC+ES. In POST 5, for both fatiguing exercises, postural control recovered its initial level while muscle strength did not. These results suggest that superimposing ES onto voluntary muscular contractions (VCs) impaired muscle strength and postural control less than did VCs alone. However the duration of recovery of these two neurophysiological functions did not differ for the two fatiguing exercises. For both exercises, postural control was restored faster than the ability to produce muscular strength. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”

The goal of this work was to investigate the influence of DMSO, garlic extract and p-coumaric acid on bacterial quorum sensing (QS).

Methods and Results:

The decreases in the QS responses of QS reporter strains Escherichia coli pSB401 and pSB536, Agrobacterium tumefaciens NTL4, Chromobacterium violaceum 5999 and wt 494, Pseudomonas putida IsoF/gfp and environmental Pseudomonas chlororaphis were quantified in relation to growth inhibitory effects. DMSO showed no significant QS-specific effects on the strains tested even at close-to-lethal concentrations. Garlic extracts antagonized the activity of QS receptors LuxR, AhyR and TraR, but were toxic at higher concentrations.

A frontotemporal craniotomy was performed to access the superfici

A frontotemporal craniotomy was performed to access the superficial middle cerebral vein in the

left sylvian fissure. Under fluoroscopic guidance, a microcatheter was advanced through this vein to the floor of the middle cranial fossa and into the dAVF, permitting coil occlusion.

CONCLUSION: This transcranial vein technique may be a useful adjunct in dAVF therapy when percutaneous transarterial or transvenous approaches fail or are not possible.”
“Fungal arterial infections are well-described entities resulting in direct invasion of the arterial wall or embolic occlusion of small and medium-sized arteries. Nutlin-3a in vivo However, acute occlusion of large vessels such as the aorta by fungal material is exceedingly rare. A 53-year-old woman presented with acute bilateral lower extremity ischemia. Bcl-2 inhibitor She had a history of fungal endocarditis requiring two prosthetic mitral valve replacements; the last episode was 7 months before the current admission. Imaging studies revealed that she had an acute infrarenal aortic occlusion, with evidence of multiple end-organ emboli. After transfemoral thromboembolectomy, perfusion was restored to her lower extremities with minor neurologic sequelae. She ultimately responded to intravenous antifungal

agents. (J Vase Surg 2011;54:1475-7.)”
“Centrioles are microtubule-derived structures that are essential for the formation of centrosomes, cilia and flagella. The centrosome is the major microtubule organiser in animal cells, participating in a variety of processes, from cell SBC-115076 ic50 polarisation to cell division, whereas cilia and flagella contribute to several mechanisms in eukaryotic cells, from motility to sensing. Although it was suggested more than a century ago that these microtubule-derived structures are involved

in human disease, the molecular bases of this association have only recently been discovered. Surprisingly, there is very little overlap between the genes affected in the different diseases, suggesting that there are tissue-specific requirements for these microtubule-derived structures. Knowledge of these requirements and disease mechanisms has opened new avenues for therapeutical strategies. Here, we give an overview of recent developments in this field, focusing on cancer, diseases of brain development and ciliopathies.”
“Many recombinant eukaryotic proteins tend to form insoluble aggregates called inclusion bodies, especially when expressed in Escherichia coli. We report the first application of the technique of three-phase partitioning (TPP) to obtain correctly refolded active proteins from solubilized inclusion bodies. TPP was used for refolding 12 different proteins overexpressed in E. coli. In each case, the protein refolded by TPP gave either higher refolding yield than the earlier reported method or succeeded where earlier efforts have failed.

Despite frequent reassortment events between TR and EA lineage vi

Despite frequent reassortment events between TR and EA lineage viruses in China, evidence for the genesis of the 2009 pandemic virus in pigs in this region is still absent.”
“Ghrelin is a peptide hormone produced and secreted in the stomach. Numerous studies over the past decade demonstrate its importance in food intake, body-weight regulation and glucose homeostasis. These effects are driven largely by the high expression of the ghrelin

receptor (GHSR1a) in the hypothalamus. However, selleck screening library GHSR1 a is also expressed in numerous extra-hypothalamic neuronal populations, suggesting that ghrelin has physiological functions besides those involved in metabolic functions. In this review, I focus on increasing evidence that ghrelin has important roles in extra-hypothalamic functions, including learning and memory, reward and motivation, anxiety and depression, and neuroprotection. Furthermore, I discuss how the recently demonstrated role of ghrelin in promoting survival during periods of caloric restriction could contribute to its inherent neuroprotective and neuromodulatory properties.”
“The aim of the study was to explore whether there is an association between body size at birth measured by birth weight and ponderal index

and later depression at the age of 31 years. The analyses were based on 4007 males and 4332 LY2109761 chemical structure females born in 1966 in the two northernmost provinces of Finland with data on current depression measured by the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 questionnaire (HSCL-25) and self-reported physician-diagnosed lifetime depression

at 31 years and childhood characteristics. The associations between birth measures Selleckchem QVDOph and later depression were analysed with several confounding factors including maternal depression during pregnancy. Low birth measures did not associate with adult depression in men or women. Women with high birth weight (>= 4500 g) had a higher risk for current depression compared to women with birth weight 3000 g-3499 g. Women with high ponderal index (the highest 90-95 percentiles and >= 95 percentiles) had a 1.53-1.55 higher likelihood for current depression compared with women with normal ponderal index. Based on this Study, large body size at birth may be a risk factor for later depression. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Reductions in reward-related (e.g. striatal) neural activation have been noted following obesity surgery. It has been speculated that these postoperative neural changes may be related to documented postoperative changes in food preferences; however, this relation has not been previously established. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging and rating scales were used to assess neural responsivity, desire to eat (i.e. wanting), and liking for high- and low-calorie food cues in 14 females one month pre- and one month post-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery.