(c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In this study we examined whether in vivo treatments with Bcl-2 inhibitor HA14-1 can affect
the function of vasopressinergic system of PP2 purchase rat. HA14-1 is a novel organic compound that has micromolar affinity for Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and acts as a mimetic of BH3-only proteins by antagonizing the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins and triggering Bax-dependent apoptosis. We found that intrahypothalamic injections of HA14-1 did not induce apoptosis of vasopressin (VP) cells of supraoptic nucleus, but led to activation of VP synthesis and release, resulting in decreased diuresis. Our data has also demonstrated that injections of HA14-1 increased phospho-MEK1/2, phospho-CREB and phospho-Elk-1 levels in magnocellular neurons.
Thus we propose that injections of HA14-1 into the hypothalamus do not lead to neuronal death, but change the functional activity of VP neurons of hypothalamus centres. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In this work, we ask whether the simultaneous movement of agonist and antagonist among surface receptors (i.e. continually associating and dissociating from individual receptors according to specified kinetics) has any unexpected consequences for G-protein activation and receptor desensitization. A Monte Carlo model framework find more is used to track the diffusion and reaction of individual receptors, allowing the requirement for receptors and G-proteins or receptors check details and kinases to find each other by diffusion (collision coupling)
to be implemented explicitly. We find that at constant agonist occupancy the effect of an antagonist on both G-protein activation and the ratio of G-protein activation to receptor desensitization can be modulated by varying the antagonist dissociation kinetics. The explanation for this effect is that antagonist dissociation kinetics influence the ability of agonists to access particular receptors and thus reach G-proteins and kinases near those receptors. Relevant parameter ranges for observation of these effects are identified. These results are useful for understanding experimental and therapeutic situations when both agonist and antagonist are present, and in addition may offer new insights into insurmountable antagonism. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The psychological oblique effect, a well-known phenomenon that humans and some mammals are more visually sensitive to cardinal (vertical and horizontal) contours than to oblique ones, has commonly been associated with the overrepresentation of cardinal orientations in the visual cortex. In contrast to the oblique effect, however, Essock et al. [E.A. Essock, J.K. DeFord, B.C. Hansen, M.J. Sinai, Oblique stimuli are seen best (not worst!) broad-band stimuli: a horizontal effect, Vision Res.