Pre-procedure music may also reduce required quantities of intravenously administered drugs. “
“The interferon (IFN) system is integral to the host response against viruses, and many viruses have developed strategies to overcome its antiviral effects. The effects of
hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E, on IFN signaling have not been investigated primarily because of the nonavailability of an efficient in vitro culture system or small animal models of infection. We report here the generation of A549 cell lines persistently infected with genotype 3 HEV, designated as HEV-A549 cells and the effects HEV has on IFN-α–mediated Janus kinase–signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK–STAT) signaling. Treatment of HEV-A549
cells with 250, 500, and 1000 U/mL buy MAPK Inhibitor Library of IFN-α for 72 hours showed a dose-dependent PD0325901 nmr reduction in HEV RNA levels by 10%, 20%, and 50%, respectively. IFN-α–stimulated genes coding for the antiviral proteins dsRNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) and 2′,5′-oligoadenylate synthetase (2′,5′-OAS) were down-regulated in IFN-α–treated HEV-A549 cells. HEV infection also prevented IFN-α–induced phosphorylation of STAT1. Regulation of STAT1 by HEV was specific, as phosphorylation of STAT2, tyrosine kinase (Tyk) 2, and Jak1 by IFN-α was unaltered. Additionally, STAT1 levels were markedly increased in HEV-A549 cells compared with naive A549 cells. Furthermore, binding of HEV open reading frame (ORF)3 protein to STAT1 in HEV-A549 cells was observed. HEV ORF3 protein alone inhibited IFN-α–induced phosphorylation of STAT1 and down-regulated the IFN-α–stimulated genes encoding PKR, 2′,5′-OAS, and myxovirus resistance A. Conclusion: HEV inhibits IFN-α signaling through the regulation of STAT1 phosphorylation in A549 cells. These findings have implications for the development of new strategies against hepatitis E. (HEPATOLOGY 2012 ) The interferon system is
an important component of the host response against viruses.1, 2 Acute viral infection of susceptible host cells initiates a type I interferon (IFN) response that medchemexpress is composed predominantly of interferon-α and -β (IFN-α/β) signaling through the IFN-α receptor. IFN-α/β receptor binding results in receptor subunit dimerization and activation through tyrosine phosphorylation of two tyrosine kinases of the Janus family, Janus kinase 1(Jak1) and tyrosine kinase 2 (Tyk2), which then phosphorylate signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 and STAT2 on a single tyrosine residue, leading to STAT1–STAT2 heterotrimerization with interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 9 followed by nuclear localization.1 In the nucleus these proteins serve to transactivate the interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) found in the promoter of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs).