Striped skunks will raid bins and bee hives in urban areas (Clark

Striped skunks will raid bins and bee hives in urban areas (Clark, 1994) with up to 18% of the diet of eastern striped skunks living near humans sourced from trash (Hamilton, 1936), while bin-raiding by opossums make them one of the most commonly reported pest species (Clark, 1994). Inadvertently enticing animals closer to human settlements through the provision of refuse is likely to be the first step towards these animals becoming habituated to human presence. For example, banded mongooses Mungos mungo have been recorded feeding at tips in Uganda (Gilchrist & Otali, 2002) as have red foxes in Saudi Arabia (Macdonald et al., 1999) and

brown bears in Europe (Quammen, 3-MA datasheet 2003). Wolves make use of refuse dumps in Israel (Yom-Tov, 2003), Canada (Geist, 2007), Italy (Cosmosmith, 2011) and Romania (Promberger et al., 1998). Such feeding behaviour has resulted in increased habituation to humans to the extent that they have little fear of people. In Canada, wolves are reported to approach the dump truck carrying refuse to the tip (timing their arrival to that of the truck) and thus have come to associate human smell with the provision of food (Geist, 2007). Animals that raid human refuse for food are likely to also ingest substantial quantities of non-food material,

which might become detrimental to their health. In addition to anthropogenic food items, the faeces of raccoons from urban sites include a variety of non-food items (e.g. plastic, rubber bands) that probably came from raided bins (Hoffmann & Gottschang, 1977). Even though coyotes (Gehrt, 2007) and stone martens (Eskreys-Wójcik & Wierzbowska, Ponatinib nmr 2007) are not noted as bin raiders, 上海皓元 2% of Chicago coyotes’ scats have evidence of human refuse, for example, fast food wrappers, pieces of rubber, sweet wrappers, plastic, string

and aluminum foil (Morey, Gese & Gehrt, 2007), and 17% of stone marten scats from urban areas contained rubber and plastic, etc. (Eskreys-Wójcik & Wierzbowska, 2007). Fruit is of major seasonal importance to badgers, making up 48–61% of the diet (stomach contents and faeces) of Bristol badgers (Harris, 1984), and persimmons are found in 100% of autumn-collected Japanese badger scats in urban Tokyo. Stone martens also rely heavily on fruit (present in 43% of scats, Baghli, Engel & Verhagen, 2002; Lanszki, 2003). Even species such as coyotes and foxes may use fruit as a significant food source. Fruit is present in 23% of Chicago coyote scats (Morey et al., 2007), and 43% of urban Washington State coyote scats (Quinn, 1997a). Lewis et al. (1993) reported seeds of >44 plant genera (from >28 plant families) present in 73% of the scats of red foxes from Orange County, California (with seasonal differences: greater occurrence in autumn). Contesse et al. (2004) recorded wild fruit in the stomachs of 23% of urban Zürich red foxes examined, and cultivated fruit and crops in 49%.

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