Study limitations It should
be acknowledged that the findings of this study may be limited to aerobic Gemcitabine cost exercise, since different types of exercise (e.g., aerobic and resistance exercise) elicit unique molecular responses, and the effects of ROS in BIIB057 cell line muscle may vary depending on the type of exercise involved . Furthermore, markers of oxidative stress were only slightly increased after exercise in both groups, which does not allow a comparison of the effects of curcumin versus placebo. The failure to observe differences in tissue markers of sarcolemmal disruption and inflammatory response between the two groups of volunteers might be due the small number of muscle samples available for analysis. Previous positive studies on curcumin supplementation for chronic musculoskeletal conditions like osteoarthritis [22, 56] involved longer treatments (3–8 months), and it might therefore be that supplementation in this study was too short to produce statistically significant histological benefits over placebo. Conclusions Taken together, our observations suggest that curcumin may be beneficial to attenuate exercise-induced DOMS, and larger studies could provide statistical significance also for the functional and biochemical parameters that only showed a trend to improvement in our study, like the histological evaluation of muscle damage. Acknowledgements Prof. Martino
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