Recently, the spa has helped to treat respiratory system diseases

Recently, the spa has helped to treat respiratory system diseases, such as bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic sinusitis and pneumoconiosis (Report on the state of the environment of Lower Silesia, 1998�C2003). The difference selleckchem in altitude above sea level between Polkowice (150 m) and Jedlina Zdroj (500 m) is relatively small and according to published studies (Weitz et al., 2002), should not have a significant influence on the development of the respiratory system. Lung-Function Tests Evaluation of lung function was performed using a commercial spirometer (Flowscreen, Jaeger). The following respiratory parameters were chosen for analysis: vital capacity (VC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), Tiffeneau-index (FEV1%VC), peak expiratory flow (PEF), maximal expiratory flow rate at 50% of FVC (MEF50) and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV).

The spirometric testing was conducted only in the sitting position. Each subject was asked to perform three satisfactory blows, defined as FVC and FEV1 agreeing within 5%, FEV1 extrapolation volume less than 100 ml or 5% of FVC, less than 50 ml expired in the final 2 s, and forced expiratory time exceeding 3 s. The best of the three blows by each child was chosen by the spirometer program, according to the guidelines of the American Thoracic Society (ATS) modified for children (American Thoracic Society, 1978; American Thoracic Society, 1996). Volume and gas calibrations were performed before each test with a 1-L syringe (3% variability was acceptable), and the results were corrected to BTPS conditions.

The recommended reference values of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) gave predictions for lung variables in children (Quanjer et al., 1993; Quanjer et al., 1995). A trained person performed the spirometric testing in all subjects. Motor Abilities Tests Motor abilities were measured with selected European Personal Fitness Tests in the following order: plate tapping test, sit and reach, standing broad jump, handgrip, and shuttle run (Eurofit 1993). All tests were performed in a gym. A non-slip surface and sport shoes were used for the running and jumping tests. The participants rested between each test. The battery of tests included the following: -Plate tapping test, which measured the speed of upper limb movements.

Participants were asked to pass, as quickly and as many times as possible, a plastic disc held by one hand over to the other, with the disc touching the flat surface of a table. -Sit-and-reach test, which measured flexibility and included reaching as far as possible from a sitting position. -Standing broad jump test, which measured explosive strength by jumping for a distance from AV-951 a standing start. -Handgrip test to measure static strength. This was achieved by squeezing a calibrated hydraulic hand dynamometer (Jamar) as forcefully as possible with the dominant hand.

After training period estimated VO2max increased only significant

After training period estimated VO2max increased only significantly for GCOM (4,6%, p=0.01). The same authors (Santos et al., 2011b) also compared the effects of an 8-week training period of resistance training alone (GR), or combined resistance and endurance training (GCOM) on body composition, selleck inhibitor explosive strength and VO2max adaptations in a group of adolescent schoolgirls. Sixty-seven healthy girls recruited from a Portuguese public high school (age: 13.5��1.03 years, from 7th and 9th grades) were divided into 3 experimental groups to train twice a week for 8 wk: GR (n=21), GCOM (n=25) and a control group (GC: n=21; no training program). Anthropometric parameters variables as well as performance variables (strength and aerobic fitness) were assessed.

No significant training-induced differences were observed in 1 kg and 3 kg medicine ball throw gains (2.7 to 10.8%) between GR and GCOM groups. Therefore, concurrent training seems to be an effective, well-rounded exercise program that can be prescribed as a means to improve muscle strength in healthy schoolboys. Moreover, performing simultaneously resistance and endurance training in the same workout does not impair strength development in young schoolboys and girls, which has important practical relevance for the construction of strength training school-based programs. Strength vs. Detraining: Elite Team Sports The maintenance of physical performance during a specific detraining period (decreased in RT volume and/or intensity) may also be explained by the continuation of specific sport practices and competitions and, simultaneously, by the short duration of detraining itself (decreased in RT volume and/or intensity).

It is unclear whether the inconsistency of results between different studies involving different sports is due to methodological differences, different training backgrounds, or to different population characteristics. For example, Kraemer et al. (1995) observed that recreationally trained men can maintain jump performance during short periods of detraining (6 weeks). These researchers argued that other factors like jumping technique may be critical for vertical jump performance and may have contributed to the lack of change in jump ability. Marques and Gonz��lez-Badillo (2006) found that professional team handball players declined in jump ability during a detraining period (7 weeks), though not significantly so.

This could suggest that game-specific jumping is a better means of positively influencing jump performance. It might be further inferred that game-specific jumping better promotes jump performance amongst those sports where jumping is fundamental. These findings also corroborate our personal professional experience. In fact, reducing ST volume Carfilzomib for a short time (2�C3 weeks) is not synonymous with performance decline. Occasionally, performance would even increase or at least remain stable.

Muscle torques and power output developed on a cycle ergometer sh

Muscle torques and power output developed on a cycle ergometer showed significant positive correlations with the mesomorphic component while significant kinase inhibitor Nilotinib negative ones with ectomorphy. Acknowledgments The study was supported by Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Grant No. AWF – Ds.-134).
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the basic and evoked blood flow in the skin microcirculation of the hand, one day and ten days after a series of 10 whole body cryostimulation sessions, in healthy individuals. The study group included 32 volunteers �C 16 women and 16 men. The volunteers underwent 10 sessions of cryotherapy in a cryogenic chamber. The variables were recorded before the series of 10 whole body cryostimulation sessions (first measurement), one day after the last session (second measurement) and ten days later (third measurement).

Rest flow, post-occlusive hyperaemic reaction, reaction to temperature and arterio�Cvenous reflex index were evaluated by laser Doppler flowmetry. The values recorded for rest flow, a post-occlusive hyperaemic reaction, a reaction to temperature and arterio �C venous reflex index were significantly higher both in the second and third measurement compared to the initial one. Differences were recorded both in men and women. The values of frequency in the range of 0,01 Hz to 2 Hz (heart frequency dependent) were significantly lower after whole-body cryostimulation in both men and women. In the range of myogenic frequency significantly higher values were recorded in the second and third measurement compared to the first one.

Recorded data suggest improved response of the cutaneous microcirculation to applied stimuli in both women and men. Positive effects of cryostimulation persist in the tested group for 10 consecutive days. Keywords: cryotherapy, skin blood flow, rest flow, post-occlusive hyperaemic reaction, arterio�Cvenous reflex index Introduction Whole body cryotherapy (WBCT) is more and more frequently used to complete pharmacotherapy and kinesiotherapy that are applied in rheumatologic and neurological diseases as well as in therapy of injuries of the locomotor system or in overload syndromes. It is also a modern, effective and safe procedure for athletes�� recovery (Hubbard et al., 2004).

The procedure of whole body cryostimulation is based on exposure of the organism to extremely low temperature (?110��C to ?160��C) for a very short period (1 �C 3 minutes) without provoking hypothermia or congelation (Westerlund et al., 2003). Cryogenic temperatures trigger physiological thermoregulation mechanisms, which results Anacetrapib in analgesic (Long et al., 2005; Brandner et al., 1996; Ingersoll et al., 1991), anti-inflammatory (Banfi et al., 2010; Knight, 1995), anti-oedematic (Meeusun et al., 1998) and anti-oxidative effects (Akhalaya et al., 2006; Dugue et al., 2005) and stimulate the immune system (Lubkowska et al., 2010b).

The sample was randomly divided

The sample was randomly divided Enzalutamide clinical trial into two groups: the Stretching Group (n=15), which performed 6.5 minutes of stretching and the Control Group (n=15), which remained seated for the same period of time. Procedures The study was performed in accordance with the ethical standards (Harriss and Atkinson, 2009). Moreover, the local Ethics Committee, in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, approved all procedures prior to the start of this investigation. All volunteers completed a medical screening questionnaire and provided written informed consent prior to participation. The Stretching Group performed a bout of stretching focusing on their dominant quadriceps muscle, which included ten passive stretches lasting 30 s each with a 10 s rest between stretches (Torres et al., 2007).

All passive stretching was observed by the same examiner, who limited the stretch until he felt reasonable resistance or the subject reported discomfort (Johansson et al., 1999). The subject was in a standing position with one knee resting on a chair. The dominant leg was kept relaxed; the examiner passively stretched the quadriceps, flexing maximally the subject��s knee and extending the hip to a neutral position. If maximal knee flexion did not produce the sensation of a stretch or resistance against the movement, hip extension would be added in order to increase the stretch. No intervention was made in the Control Group, which remained seated while the stretching program was conducted. The dependent variables included knee JPS, TTDPM, and the sense of force, which were recorded in random order before, immediately afterward, and one hour after the stretching program.

The protocol for the JPS assessment involved passive positioning and active repositioning (passive-active test) of the dominant leg (Zhou et al., 2008). JPS measurements were performed with an isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex Medical Systems, Inc., Shirley, NY, USA) (Callaghan et al., 2002). The Biodex System 3 isokinetic dynamometer is a mechanically reliable instrument for the measurement of an angular position, isometric torque, and slow to moderately high velocities, with high intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC 2,K = 0.99 for each variable) (Drouin et al., 2004). Test instructions were given to the participants prior to their initiation and they were allowed to familiarise themselves with the Biodex System one day before the test.

The participants were seated in the dynamometer chair at 90 degrees of hip flexion with their eyes closed. They were given headphones and were fitted with an Dacomitinib air cushion above the leg, which was inflated to a pressure of 40 mmHg to minimize cutaneous sensory information (Callaghan et al., 2002). All participants had the ��hold�� button in one hand so that they could stop the dynamometer��s lever arm with their thumb when they thought it was at the target angle (Willems et al., 2002).

88 mm (1 2%) with the participant 9 m away from

88 mm (1.2%) with the participant 9 m away from selleck compound the camera. Estimation of experimental effects based on judges�� scores Three qualified judges viewed each trial and provided a performance score. Breaks in body segmental alignment during each test were penalised by a deduction of 0.10 to 0.50 points (on a scale of 10 points), in accordance with the code of points ( FIG, 2001 ). The average of the three professional judges�� assessments was the final score of the performance. Statistical analysis Analysis of variance for repeated measures (ANOVA) was used to estimate the statistical significance of differences among measurements. The normality of distribution and the homogeneity of variances were tested with the Shapiro-Wilk test.

After the verification of the prerequisite, studied variables were analysed using a two-way mixed-factor analysis of variance, Group (2) �� Test Time (3), with the two experimental groups of acrobats representing a between- participants factor and the testing times (pre-test, retention and delayed retention tests) representing a within-participants factor. A probability level of p<0.05 was used to indicate statistical significance. For significant differences, a Fisher post hoc test was used. The results were statistically analysed using the Statistica programme (StatSoft, Inc. [2005]. STATISTICA [data analysis software system], version 7.1. Results To assess the performance quality, the judges�� scores were used (a typical evaluation method in competitions). Scores for performing the round-off salto backward tucked were converted into percentage values.

It was assumed that 100% equalled 10 points, which was the maximum score for performing a given motor task ( Figure 2 ), and acrobats�� errors caused percentage values to be deducted from the total. At the beginning of the experiment (pre-test), the differences between the key elements and the mean values obtained by groups B and C for performing the round-off salto backward tucked were not significant (a group effect F(1, 28)= 0.33, p=0.57; d=0.22)). In the pre-test, group B made more errors while performing the round-off salto backward tucked than group C (statistically insignificant). Figure 2 Mean scores for the technical performance of the round-off salto backward tucked. The experiment effect was analysed using ANOVA with repeated measures (Group �� Test Time).

ANOVA revealed a significant Entinostat effect of Group (F(1,28)=54,87, p<0.001) as well as a significant Test Time effect (F(2, 56)=190,74, p<0.001). The post hoc comparison indicated significant differences between the feedback applied in both groups during the retention test (6%; p<.001; size effect d=3.18) and delayed retention test (7%; p<0.001; size effect d=3.65). According to the judges�� scores, the type of feedback has a significant influence on performance between the retention and the delayed retention tests.