“Haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive prote

“Haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), and white blood cells

(WBC) were assessed in 20 dogs divided into 2 groups. The dogs of group A were not subjected to hunting exercise (control group), while the dogs of group B were subjected to hunting exercise for 3 hr (experimental group). Blood samples were collected from each animal before hunting (T0), immediately after 3 hr of hunting (T1), and after 1 hr of recovery (T2). The general linear model (GLM) repeated measures procedure showed a significant difference between the 2 groups (P < 0.0001) and a significant rise (P < 0.0001) in concentration of Hp, SAA, and CRP after hunting exercise, with a consequent decline during

recovery period in group B. These parameters could be considered valid and easily obtainable biomarkers in relation to hunting stress in dogs. Additional studies find protocol will continue to elucidate the magnitude and the time of response of other acute phase proteins.”
“Background: Chronic post-thoracotomy pain is relatively common after major thoracic surgery. The primary results of a pilot study using thoracic epidural steroid and clonidine injection to treat chronic intractable post-thoracotomy pain are presented.\n\nMethods: Twenty-one patients with intractable post-thoracotomy pain participated in the study. Thirteen patients received thoracic epidural injection of a mixture of 150 lg clonidine and 80 mg of methylprednisolone acetate diluted in 8 mL 0.5% lidocaine. Eight

patients continued with comprehensive medical management and served HSP990 mw as a control group. A visual analog scale (VAS) for pain was recorded before treatment, 30 minutes after the epidural injection and before discharge, at 3 weeks and 6 months. Pain, sleep disturbances, appetite changes and daily activity, as well as the incidence of complications were recorded. The need for opioid rescue medications was recorded.\n\nResults: Twelve of 13 patients in the injection group reported improvement (> 50% reduction of pain) at 3 weeks and 6 months following see more the injection. Allodynia improved in all injection group patients compared to four of eight in the control group. Sleep disturbance, appetite changes and daily activity were improved in the injection group. The number of patients requiring opioid rescue medications was reduced from 61.5% to 15.3% during the 6-month duration of study. Injection caused transient hypotension in 46.2% of patients. Mild sedation was noted in 30.7% of patients receiving injection; 15.3% of the patients had localized back pain at the site of injection.\n\nDiscussion: Our preliminary data suggest possible efficacy of thoracic epidural steroid and clonidine mixture in the treatment of chronic post-thoracotomy pain. No serious adverse effects were noted in this pilot study.

“Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae, Dacinae)

“Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae, Dacinae) is an oligophagous species that feeds only on cultivated olives (Olea europaea L.) and its close relatives. Synchrony of seasonal activity patterns of B. oleae, the olive fruit fly with its host’s phenology is therefore expected. The objective of this study was to monitor the male olive fruit fly response to female sex pheromone in the field. White sticky traps were deployed year round for 3 yr in an olive orchard in A-1155463 cost Oroville, CA. They were

checked periodically, and flies captured were counted and sexed. Although males were captured regularly, the numbers of females captured on pheromone traps were negligible. Food-baited traps and water-baited traps were deployed to show the presence of flies in the field. Our hypothesis that males would respond to pheromone when females were available and olive fruits were susceptible for oviposition was partially supported. There were two peaks of high male captures in pheromone traps: spring and fall. In spring, females were available

and mature but few acceptable olives were available for oviposition (no new crop olives yet). In fall, females were present but many of the new crop olives were already infested. The food baited traps confirmed the presence of flies in the field even when very few were being captured in the pheromone-baited traps. Traps containing only water caught only two flies showing Stem Cell Compound Library that water alone or the trap type in itself was not attractive see more to flies.”
“Protein kinase A (PRKACA) has been documented as a pivotal regulator in meiosis and mitosis arrest. Although our previous work has established that PRKACA regulates cell cycle progression of mouse fertilized eggs by inhibiting M-phase promoting factor (MPF), little is known about the intermediate factor between PRKACA and MPF in the mitotic cell cycle. In this study, we investigated the

role of the PRKACA/CDC25B pathway on the early development of mouse fertilized eggs. Overexpression of unphosphorylatable CDC25B mutant (Cdc25b-S321A or Cdc25b-S229A/S321A) rapidly caused G(2)-phase eggs to enter mitosis. Microinjection of either Cdc25b-WT or Cdc25b-S229A mRNA also promoted G(2)/M transition, but much less efficiently than Cdc25b-S321A and Cdc25b-S229A/S321A. Moreover, mouse fertilized eggs overrode the G(2) arrest by microinjection of either Cdc25b-S321A or Cdc25b-S229A/S321A mRNA, which efficiently resulted in MPF activation by directly dephosphorylating CDC2A-Tyr15, despite culture under conditions that maintained exogenous dibutyryl cAMP. Using a highly specific antibody against phospho-Ser321 of CDC25B in Western blotting, we showed that CDC25B-Ser321 was phosphorylated at the G, and S phases, whereas Ser321 was dephosphorylated at the G, and M phases in vivo.

Method Immediately

after the 2010 administration of the M

Method Immediately

after the 2010 administration of the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination (MCCQE) Part II at three test centers, the authors recruited participants, who read and diagnosed a series of 25 written cases of varying difficulty. The authors computed accuracy Ferroptosis inhibitor drugs and response time (RT) for each case. Results Seventy-five Canadian medical graduates (of 95 potential participants) participated. The overall correlation between RT and accuracy was -0.54; accuracy, then, was strongly associated with more rapid RT. This negative relationship with RT held for 23 of 25 cases individually and overall when the authors controlled for participants’ knowledge, as judged by their MCCQE Part I and II scores. For 19 of 25 cases, accuracy on each case was positively related to experience with that specific diagnosis. A participant’s performance on the test overall was significantly correlated with his or her performance on both the MCCQE Part I and II. Conclusions These results are inconsistent with clinical reasoning models that presume that System 1 reasoning is necessarily more error prone than System 2. These results suggest instead that rapid diagnosis Selleckchem SNX-5422 is accurate and relates to other measures of competence.”
“The small kinase inhibitor SKF86002 lacks intrinsic fluorescence but becomes

fluorescent upon binding to the ATP-binding sites of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 alpha). It was found that co-crystals of this compound with various kinases Were distinguishable by their strong fluorescence. The co-crystals of SKF86002 with p38 alpha, Pimi ASK1, HCK and AMPK were fluorescent. Addition of SKF86002, which binds to the ATP site, to the co-crystallization solution of HCK promoted protein stability and thus facilitated the buy GNS-1480 production of crystals that otherwise would not grow in the apo form. It was further demonstrated that the fluorescence of SKF86002 co-crystals can be applied to screen for candidate kinase inhibitors. When a compound binds competitively to the ATP binding site of a kinase crystallized with SKF86002, it displaces

the fluorescent SKF86002 and the crystal loses its fluorescence. Lower fluorescent signals were reported after soaking SKF86002-Pim1 and SKF86002 HCK co-crystals with the inhibitors quercetin, a quinazoline derivative and A-419259. Determination of the SKF86002-Pim1 and SKF86002-HCK co-crystal structures confirmed that SKF86002 interacts with the ATP-binding sites of Pim1 and HCK. The structures of Pim1-SKF86002 crystals soaked with the inhibitors quercetin and a quinazoline derivative and of HCK-SKF86002 crystals soaked with A-419259 were determined. These structures were virtually identical to the deposited crystal structures of the same complexes. A KINOMEscart assay revealed that SKF86002 binds a wide variety of kinases. Thus, for a broad range of kinases, SKF86002 is useful as a crystal marker, a crystal stabilizer and a marker to identify ligand co-crystals for structural analysis.

That is a good thing if it is done correctly, but poorly designed

That is a good thing if it is done correctly, but poorly designed quality 5-Fluoracil research buy measures might actually interfere with patient care. It will be necessary for ASBrS to remain involved in the development of

relevant, true data-based measures of quality that have appropriate benchmarks and no unintended consequences. Importantly, the quality measures need to include all reasonable treatment options so that quality care is enhanced and not impeded.”
“This review provides an overview of emerging techniques, namely, photodynamic diagnosis (PDD), narrow band imaging (NBI), Raman spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography, virtual cystoscopy, and endoscopic microscopy for its use in the diagnosis and surveillance of bladder cancer. The technology, clinical evidence and future applications of these approaches are discussed with particular emphasis on PDD and NBI.

These approaches show promise to optimise cystoscopy and transurethral resection of bladder tumours.”
“Objectives of this study were to record, classify and describe cutaneous and ocular neoplasms of sheep and goats as well as their diagnosis after surgical excision, and to determine the link of tumor occurrence with breed, sex, age, fleece or coat color, and tumor location. Clinical cases (n = 104) of tumors (sheep = 89, goats = 15) were presented for surgical treatment. Sheep and goats with tumors were subjected to detailed study including breed, age, sex, and fleece or coat color of the animal, case history, gross and microscopic Apoptosis inhibitor appearance of the tumor, surgical treatment, and selleckchem postoperative care. Five different types of tumors were diagnosed in sheep and goats namely; squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), malignant

melanoma, lipoma, fibroma, and fibrosarcoma. Mixed tumors in the form of SCC with melanoma were also recorded. Tumors were frequent in females and were observed in two sheep breeds (Awassi and Najdi) and in Ardi goats. Detailed gross and microscopic descriptions of neoplasms were cited. Predilection sites of neoplasia in sheep were on the ear(s), eye and eyelids, shoulder region, on the back, flank region, lateral to the umbilicus, lateral to the udder, on the udder, hind limbs, and on the inner aspect of the tail. Tumors in goats were present on the eye and eyelids, base of the horn, carpus, udder, anus, perineum, vulva, and both anus and vulva. In conclusion, SCC and malignant melanoma were prevalent neoplasms in sheep and goats, respectively. Ocular SCC was frequent in Najdi sheep that have white colored head; however, SCC was frequent in the flank and tail of Awassi sheep that have white colored trunk. Ovine and caprine neoplasms were prevalent in females and at ages of 4-6 years and 3-6 years, respectively. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: recurrent falls are a major public health problem associated with high morbidity and mortality as well as increased dependence.

A new factorial model for infants and children, validated on the

A new factorial model for infants and children, validated on the basis of the adequacy of breast milk protein intakes and involving a lower maintenance requirement value, no provision for saltatory growth and new estimates of protein deposition

identifies lower protein requirements than in previous reports. Higher values for adult amino acid requirements, derived from a re-evaluation of nitrogen balance studies and new stable isotope studies, identify some cereal-based diets as being inadequate for lysine. The main outstanding issues relate to the biological implausibility of the very low efficiencies PCI-34051 inhibitor of protein utilisation used in the factorial models for protein requirements for all population groups especially pregnancy when requirements may be over-estimated. Also considerable uncertainty remains about the design and interpretation of most of the studies used to identify amino acid requirement values.”
“BACKGROUND: In 1999, a multidisciplinary panel of experts in colorectal cancer reviewed the relevant medical literature and issued a consensus recommendation for a 12-lymph node (LN) minimum examination after resection for colon cancer. Some authors have shown racial/ethnic differences in receipt of this evidence-based care. To date, however, none has investigated the correlation

between disparities in LN examination and disparities in outcomes after colon Veliparib cancer treatment. METHODS: This retrospective analysis used California Cancer Registry linked to California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development discharge data (1996-2006). Chi-square analysis, logistic regression, and Cox proportional hazard models predicted disparities in receipt of an adequate examination and the effect of an inadequate exam on mortality and disparities. Patients with stage I and II colon cancers undergoing surgery in California were included; patients with stage III and IV disease were

excluded. RESULTS: A total of 37,911 records were analyzed. Adequate staging SB273005 supplier occurred in fewer than half of cases. An inadequate examination (<12 LNs) was associated with higher mortality rates. Hispanics had the lowest odds of receiving an adequate exam; however, blacks, not Hispanics, had the highest risk of mortality compared with whites. This disparity was not completely explained by inadequate LN examination. CONCLUSIONS: Inadequate LN exam occurs often and is associated with increased mortality. There are disparities in receipt of the minimum exam, but this only explains a small part of the observed disparity in mortality. Improving the quality of LN examination alone is unlikely to correct colon cancer disparities. Cancer 2012; 118: 469-77. (C) 2011 American Cancer Society.

Design: Cross-sectional study Setting: Online (United Sta

\n\nDesign: Cross-sectional study.\n\nSetting: Online (United States in May 2011).\n\nParticipants: Registered users of an online medication monitoring service (MediGuard).\n\nIntervention: Online questionnaire.\n\nMain outcome measure: Participants’ information Selleckchem MLN4924 needs regarding DDIs

and perceived importance of questions related to detecting and preventing harm from DDIs.\n\nResults: Characteristics of the 100 surveyed participants were as follows: 57% women, 88% white, 96% non-Hispanic, 71% retired, mean (+/-SD) age 65.2 +/- 9.7 years (range 35-86). The number of prescription medications ranged from 2 to 22 (median 7) and the number of over-the-counter (OTC) medications from 1 to 10 (4). The most common concerns cited by participants were identification of interacting medications, seriousness of DDIs, interactions with OTC medications, interactions with foods, exacerbating comorbidities, CH5183284 supplier short-and long-term adverse effects, signs and frequency of DDIs, and how to minimize adverse effects. Statistically

significant differences based on gender, number of prescriptions, and number of OTC medications were observed in rankings of the importance of some DDI questions (P < 0.05).\n\nConclusion: Patient-centered DDI education programs should consider addressing the seriousness of DDIs, the effect of DDIs on comorbidities, and interactions with OTC medications and foods and determining methods for identifying, minimizing, and managing DDIs.”
“Multi-stage Phase II trials are often employed in practice but may not be the best approach when the endpoint of interest is not obtained soon after enrollment and/or when a control arm is desired. We present a new design in which sample

size determination includes a control arm and allows for the estimation of response for each treatment as well as estimation of the difference in the response rates. We evaluate this design under varying allocation schemes to treatment arms and response rates for each treatment.”
“The climate of Socotra, influenced by the Indian Ocean Monsoon, is poorly known, hampering understanding of its paleoclimate and (endemic) biodiversity. Mean annual rainfall and temperature, measured in a network GSK1904529A of meteorological stations from 2002 to 06, were 216 mm and 28.9 degrees C. Combined with cloud cover information from satellite images, this data provides clear ideas on inter- and intra-annual variability. Precipitation derived from the northeast (NE) winter monsoon influences especially the NE plateaus and windward side of the Haggeher Mountains because of orographic effects. The southwest (SW) summer monsoon concentrates at the southern half of the island and generally produces less rainfall. During the SW summer monsoon, clouds cover the highlands and plateaus south of the Haggeher Mountains, creating fog.

In the control group (N = 6), a 0 1% hyaluronic acid

In the control group (N = 6), a 0.1% hyaluronic acid HDAC inhibitor ophthalmic solution

was instilled at the same times. At 22 h after reperfusion, the eyeballs were enucleated and the retinal sections were stained by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). Transient ocular ischemia induced apoptosis of retinal cells in the entire retinal layer, and topically administered agmatine can significantly reduce this ischemic retinal injury. The proportion of apoptotic cells was definitely decreased (P < 0.001; Kruskal-Wallis test). Overall, we determined that topical agmatine application effectively decreases retinal damage in an in vivo ocular ischemic injury model. This implies that agmatine is a good candidate as a direct neuroprotective agent for eyes with ocular ischemic diseases.”
“Background: Selleckchem LY3039478 Analgesics, including opioids and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs reduce postoperative pain. However, little

is known about the quantitative effects of these drugs on cortical activity induced by nociceptive stimulation. The aim of the present study was to determine the neural activity in response to a nociceptive stimulus and to investigate the effects of fentanyl (an opioid agonist) and parecoxib (a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor) on this nociception-induced cortical activity evoked by tail pinch. Extracellular recordings (electroencephalogram and multi-unit signals) were performed in the area of the anterior cingulate cortex while intracellular recordings were made in the primary somatosensory cortex. The effects of parecoxib and fentanyl on induced cortical activity were compared.\n\nResults: Peripheral nociceptive stimulation in anesthetized rats produced an immediate electroencephalogram (EEG) desynchronization resembling the cortical

arousal (low-amplitude, fast-wave activity), while the membrane potential switched into a persistent depolarization see more state. The induced cortical activity was abolished by fentanyl, and the fentanyl’s effect was reversed by the opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone. Parecoxib, on the other hand, did not significantly affect the neural activity.\n\nConclusion: Cortical activity was modulated by nociceptive stimulation in anesthetized rats. Fentanyl showed a strong inhibitory effect on the nociceptive-stimulus induced cortical activity while parecoxib had no significant effect.”
“Carrots contain a wide array of phytochemicals such as carotenoids, phenolics, alpha-tocopherol, and polyacetylenes. Carrots are most known for their pro-vitamin A carotenoids but also contain other phytochemicals with documented health benefits. The phytochemicals in colored carrots present a challenge and opportunity due to the wide diversity of potent bioactive compounds. Two commercial carrots, 1 wild carrot, and 13 colored carrot varieties were characterized phytochemically.

Measuring regular and irregular shapes mathematically is found to

Measuring regular and irregular shapes mathematically is found to be a difficult task, since there PI3K inhibitor is no single measure available to differentiate various shapes.

It is known that for mammograms, shape features are superior to Haralick and wavelet based features. Various geometrical shape and margin features have been introduced based on maximum and minimum radius of mass to classify the morphology of masses. These geometric features are found to be good in discriminating regular shapes from irregular shapes. In this paper, each mass is described by shape feature vector consists of 17 shape and margin properties. The masses are classified into 4 categories such as round, oval, lobular and irregular. Classifying masses into 4 categories is a very difficult task compared to classifying masses as benign, malignant or normal vs. abnormal. Only shape and margin characteristics can be used to discriminate these 4 categories effectively. Experiments have been conducted GDC-0068 cell line on mammogram images from the Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM) and classified using C5.0 decision tree classifier. Total of 224 DDSM mammogram masses are considered for experiment. The C5.0 decision tree algorithm

is used to generate simple rules, which can be easily implemented and used in fuzzy inference system as if… then.., else statements. The rules are used to construct the generalized fuzzy membership function for classifying the masses as round, oval, lobular or irregular. Proposed approach is twice effective than existing Beamlet based features for classifying the mass as round, oval,

lobular or irregular. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Tumor cells use a wide variety of post-translational mechanisms to modify the functional repertoire of their transcriptome. One emerging but still understudied mechanism involves the export of cytoplasmic proteins that then partner with cell-surface receptors and modify both the surface-display kinetics and signaling properties of these receptors. Recent investigations demonstrate moonlighting roles for the proteins epimorphin, FGF1, FGF2, PLK1 and Ku80, to name a few, during oncogenesis and inflammation. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms of unconventional cytoplasmic-protein Erastin concentration export by focusing on the mitotic-spindle/hyaluronan-binding protein RHAMM, which is hyper-expressed in many human tumors. Intracellular RHAMM associates with BRCA1 and BARD1; this association attenuates the mitotic-spindle-promoting activity of RHAMM that might contribute to tumor progression by promoting genomic instability. Extracellular RHAMM-CD44 partnering sustains CD44 surface display and enhances CD44-mediated signaling through ERK1 and ERK2 (ERK1/2); it might also contribute to tumor progression by enhancing and/or activating the latent tumor-promoting properties of CD44.

The P26 phylogenetic tree suggests that this gene was obtained fr

The P26 phylogenetic tree suggests that this gene was obtained from three independent acquisition events within the Baculoviridae family. The presence of a signal peptide only in the PsinSNPV p26a/ORF-20 homolog indicates distinct function between the two P26 proteins. Conclusions: PsinSNPV has a genomic sequence apparently different from other baculoviruses sequenced so far. The complete genome sequence of PsinSNPV will provide a valuable resource, contributing to studies on its molecular biology and functional genomics, and will promote the development of this virus as an effective bioinsecticide.”
“Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) has been

associated with executive functions and attention GSK2126458 in vivo deficits. To clarify the issue of neurocognitive impairments in CAE, we investigated whether specific executive functions and attention deficit patterns

were present in a well-defined group of children with CAE who were taking valproic acid. Participants included 15 children with CAE and 15 healthy controls aged 8-15 years and matched for sex, age and IQ. We compared the performances of the two groups in the following neuropsychological domains: planning and problem solving (TOL), verbal fluency (FAS and CAT), verbal short-term memory (DSF), verbal KU-57788 concentration working memory (DSB), visuospatial memory (Corsi Block Tapping Test) and sustained and divided attention (TMT-A and TMT-B). No differences were found between the two groups on measures of intellectual functioning, verbal short-term memory and visuospatial memory. By contrast, significant differences were found in total time of planning task, phonological and category fluency and sustained and divided attention. Future studies that systematically examine different aspects of attention and executive functions are needed to outline a clear and specific neuropsychological profile in CAE. (C) 2012 The Japanese

Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“We describe high-density magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy conversion in a high-temperature seed-free argon plasma, for which a compact linear-shaped Faraday-type MHD electrical power generator is used. Short-time-duration single-pulse shock-tunnel-based experiments demonstrate the MHD energy conversion with varying total inflow temperature up LDK378 inhibitor to 9000K and applied magnetic-flux density up to 4.0T. The high-temperature plasma is transformed from the thermal-equilibrium state at the entrance to the weak-nonequilibrium state in the supersonic MHD channel. The discharge structure is reasonably homogeneous without suffering from serious streamer development. The power generation performance is monotonically improved by increasing total inflow temperature and strength of magnetic field. The enthalpy extraction efficiency of 13.1% and overall power density of 0.16GW/m(3) are attained. The local power density at the middle of the channel reaches 0.

The results of immunohistochemical staining revealed that pulsati

The results of immunohistochemical staining revealed that pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion was suppressed after injection of antagonist peptide 234 into the lateral cerebral ventricle, and a significant increase in luteinizing hormone level was observed after kisspeptin-10 injection into the arcuate nucleus MAPK inhibitor and medial preoptic area. The results of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent

assay showed that luteinizing hormone levels during the first hour of kisspeptin-10 infusion into the arcuate nucleus were significantly greater in the 100 pM kisspeptin-10 group than in the 10 pM kisspeptin-10 group. These findings indicate that kisspeptin directly promotes gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion and luteinizing hormone release in gonadotropin-releasing hormone/enhanced green fluorescent protein transgenic rats. The arcuate nucleus is a key component of the kisspeptin-G protein-coupled receptor 54 signaling pathway underlying regulating luteinizing hormone pulse secretion.”
“This paper describes the synthesis and biological evaluation of novel phenyldiazenyl benzothiazole (PDB) derivatives as probes for imaging neurofibrillary tangles

(NFTs) in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We successfully synthesized three PDB derivatives using a diazo coupling reaction. In binding experiments in vitro, the compounds displayed higher affinity for tau aggregates than for A beta aggregates. In fluorescent staining experiments using AD brain sections, 9 visualized NFTs clearly. No-carrier-added radioiodinated PDB derivatives were successfully Liproxstatin-1 mouse prepared through an iododestannylation reaction from the corresponding tributyltin derivatives. [(125)I]9 labeled NFTs in sections of brain tissue selleck compound from a patient with AD, but not a control.

In biodistribution experiments using normal mice, the PDB derivatives displayed an uptake into the brain, sufficient for imaging NFTs, ranging from 0.94 to 3.2% ID g(-1) but a relatively slow washout. Although further modifications are necessary to improve the pharmacokinetics in the brain, PDB with high affinity for tau aggregates may be useful as a backbone structure to develop agents for imaging NFTs in AD brains.”
“Since the 1990s nutritional supplements including protein, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals have been used to try and improve the superovulatory response of embryo donors in cattle. However, the accumulated information indicates that nutritional supplementation with protein, fatty acids, or minerals does not increase the number of viable embryos from superovulated cattle. Most of the evidence has shown that vitamin supplementation may increase the mean production of transferable embryos, but only in cows, as a detrimental effect on embryo viability has been reported in young heifers.