g., WWF, 2012). The proposed operational benefit indicator is thus trends in plantation performance of selected species, which is associated with two verifiable indicators and three verifiers. The only verifier that would be simple to use “hectares planted by species/provenance either locally or as an exotic” provides only partial assessment. The two other verifiers are more complicated to measure. These are “seed source performance: growth and survival” which can be assessed experimentally, and GS-1101 mouse “realized genetic gain and profit” which can be assessed by employing a quantitative genetics approach in a suitable sample of genetic entries. Indicators of the more
subtle benefits related to ecosystem services and the management of natural ecosystems (e.g., natural forest management and restoration) still require development. There is a clear need to link genetic variability and ecosystem services, but we should also be aware of the dual nature of genetic diversity, as on the one hand a necessary precondition for future evolution of local populations, entire species and ecosystems, and on the other hand a service provider (e.g., for breeding programs). this website In both cases the integration of genetic diversity into climate change adaptation planning is important (Alfaro et al., 2014, this issue). Additional work in this area is required. Knowledge,
education and communication are closely linked. Scientific knowledge can be gathered from the literature, whereas 5-Fluoracil nmr traditional knowledge can be more difficult to capture. The state of education may to some extent be available from national statistics and may be collected through national surveys. Assessment of trends will probably have to rely on special studies. Knowledge on intra-specific variation can be immediately connected to the two indicator areas discussed above, trends in species and population distribution patterns and condition and trends in plantation performance. Two combined response and benefit operational indicators are related to knowledge and capacity
building, with six verifiable indicators listed for the global, regional and national levels, while one trends in knowledge of genetic diversity of species is also proposed for assessment at the local level ( Table 5). In total, there are seven associated verifiers and all except one (“parameters of genetic differentiation among populations”, Table 5) can be evaluated based on background information such as National Forest Inventories (NFIs) and National Forest Programs (NFPs), or based on database searches. The estimation of verifier “parameters of genetic differentiation among populations” would require the use of molecular genetic markers and/or the evaluation of suitable field trials.