g , WWF, 2012) The proposed operational benefit indicator is thu

g., WWF, 2012). The proposed operational benefit indicator is thus trends in plantation performance of selected species, which is associated with two verifiable indicators and three verifiers. The only verifier that would be simple to use “hectares planted by species/provenance either locally or as an exotic” provides only partial assessment. The two other verifiers are more complicated to measure. These are “seed source performance: growth and survival” which can be assessed experimentally, and GS-1101 mouse “realized genetic gain and profit” which can be assessed by employing a quantitative genetics approach in a suitable sample of genetic entries. Indicators of the more

subtle benefits related to ecosystem services and the management of natural ecosystems (e.g., natural forest management and restoration) still require development. There is a clear need to link genetic variability and ecosystem services, but we should also be aware of the dual nature of genetic diversity, as on the one hand a necessary precondition for future evolution of local populations, entire species and ecosystems, and on the other hand a service provider (e.g., for breeding programs). this website In both cases the integration of genetic diversity into climate change adaptation planning is important (Alfaro et al., 2014, this issue). Additional work in this area is required. Knowledge,

education and communication are closely linked. Scientific knowledge can be gathered from the literature, whereas 5-Fluoracil nmr traditional knowledge can be more difficult to capture. The state of education may to some extent be available from national statistics and may be collected through national surveys. Assessment of trends will probably have to rely on special studies. Knowledge on intra-specific variation can be immediately connected to the two indicator areas discussed above, trends in species and population distribution patterns and condition and trends in plantation performance. Two combined response and benefit operational indicators are related to knowledge and capacity

building, with six verifiable indicators listed for the global, regional and national levels, while one trends in knowledge of genetic diversity of species is also proposed for assessment at the local level ( Table 5). In total, there are seven associated verifiers and all except one (“parameters of genetic differentiation among populations”, Table 5) can be evaluated based on background information such as National Forest Inventories (NFIs) and National Forest Programs (NFPs), or based on database searches. The estimation of verifier “parameters of genetic differentiation among populations” would require the use of molecular genetic markers and/or the evaluation of suitable field trials.

The extraction of DNA on the system used guanidinium thiocyanate

The extraction of DNA on the system used guanidinium thiocyanate (Teknova, Hollister, CA) chemical lysis and solid phase DNA separation and purification with paramagnetic beads (Micromod GmbH, Germany) [19]. Two DNA extraction parameters were evaluated to verify the optimized performance of extraction. Boundary studies on two instruments were performed around the standard set of conditions for concentration of paramagnetic beads in 500 μL of lysis buffer and the incubation time for DNA binding to the beads. Bead concentrations tested were: 0.5×, 1×, 1.5×, and 2× and bead incubation times were: 1.5 min, 3 min and 6 min. The standard conditions are

indicated in bold. Six swabs of 1000 M with 100,000 cell load were used for each condition tested. The robustness of the extraction method to remove PCR inhibitors was challenged using model systems Selleckchem ABT263 to simulate what may be encountered from buccal swab collection. Three models of PCR inhibition—coffee, tobacco, and hematin—were Wnt inhibitor used, and dilutions of each inhibitor were added to 1000 M control swabs containing 25,000 or 100,000 cells. Three replicates for each cell load and inhibitor dilution were performed. The inhibitors were prepared as follows: (1) Brewed black coffee was purchased from Starbucks® and 2 μL, 10 μL, 50 μL, and 100 μL aliquots were pipetted directly onto 1000 M swabs; (2) 2.5 g of Grizzly long cut chewing tobacco (American Snuff Company) was mixed with

25 mL of water, ground in a pestle and mortar, and soaked over the course of a four-hour period. The tobacco slurry was

stored overnight at room temperature and the next morning 2 μL, 10 μL, 50 μL, and 100 μL aliquots of the supernatant were pipetted onto 1000 M control swabs; (3) hematin stock solution of 2 mM was made by dissolving hematin (Sigma–Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) in 0.1 N NaOH and then diluted in sterile water to desired concentrations. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II 20 μL of each dilution (0.3 mM, 0.6 mM, 1.0 mM, and 2.0 mM) were pipetted onto 1000 M control swabs. The experiments with swabs were performed using three instruments. A mock hematin inhibition study was also performed using the traditional bench methods (e.g. 9700 and 3130xL). PCR reactions were prepared in duplicate with 2 ng of control DNA 007 containing hematin concentrations of: 0 mM, 0.25 mM, 0.3 mM, 0.35 mM, 0.4 mM, 0.45 mM, 0.5 mM and 1 mM and amplified for 28 cycles. The PCR products were separated and analyzed as previously described. The robustness of the GlobalFiler Express assay was tested with an EDTA inhibition study. 0.5 M EDTA (Ambion, TX) was diluted in sterile water and then added directly into the STR reaction vial to final concentrations of 0.1 mM, 0.25 mM, 0.5 mM, 1.0 mM and 1.5 mM. 1000 M control swabs with 25,000 or 100,000 cells were used to test the effect of EDTA addition on generation of a DNA profile. Three replicates for each cell load and inhibitor concentration were performed.

Nicholas Hopkinson was also funded by The Wellcome Trust and Mark

Nicholas Hopkinson was also funded by The Wellcome Trust and Mark Dayer by The British Heart Foundation. The study was supported by the NIHR Respiratory Biomedical Research Unit at Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust and Imperial College, London. “
“Aluminum refinery workers are constantly exposed to aluminum oxide (Al2O3) obtained from bauxite (Musk et al., 2000), http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Decitabine.html reporting respiratory symptoms. Decreased lung function and lung inflammation have been observed

in epidemiologic (Kraus et al., 2000 and Fritschi et al., 2003) and experimental (Halatek et al., 2005, Ichinose et al., 2008 and Mazzoli-Rocha et al., 2010) studies. Neighborhoods of the aluminum oxide industry are also exposed to concentrations of alumina dust, making these communities susceptible to develop respiratory

alterations (Chattopadhyay et al., 2007). High intensity exercise practiced under stressed conditions triggers a transitory state of low immunity (Brenner et al., 1994). On the other hand, while regular exercise can be beneficial to health, a sedentary style of life is detrimental to it (Brines et al., 1996). Daily physical activity may be able to modulate the immune system (Brines et al., 1996), increasing the resistance to respiratory infections (Oliveira et al., 2007 and Malm, 2006). Regular exercise improves histology, decreases free radical production PD-1/PD-L1 cancer and increases the activity of anti-oxidant enzymes in mice exposed to cigarette smoke (Menegali et al., 2009). Recently, Toledo et al. (2012) demonstrated that physical training minimized the reduction in lung elastance and

reduced oxidative stress in mice exposed to cigarette smoke. Hence, the aim of this study Cepharanthine was to evaluate whether regular exercising prevents pulmonary alterations induced in a murine model of acute exposure to alumina dust. Twenty-three female BALB/c mice (20–25 g) were randomly divided into 2 groups: control (C, n = 10) and exercise (E, n = 13) that swam for 15 min/day, 5 days per week during 4 consecutive weeks (E), or remained sedentary (C). After a 4-week training, all animals were exposed for 1 h in a whole-body chamber to either sterile saline (CS, n = 6 or ES, n = 4) or to a suspension of 8 mg/m3 of alumina dust (CA, n = 6 or EA, n = 7) collected in an aluminum refinery, both delivered by an ultrasonic nebulizer. Each animal rested in a container, which was made of high clarity polypropylene falcon tubes whose conical tips were cut off and replaced by metal meshes and whose lids were perforated; the containers rested side by side inside the exposure chamber ( Mazzoli-Rocha et al., 2010). All animals were analyzed 24 h after saline or alumina dust exposure.

Having said that, we did not find a marked difference


Having said that, we did not find a marked difference

in measured PO2PO2 in the AL300 sensor, when we compared values calculated from fluorescence intensity (data not shown) with values from fluorescence quenching time constant measurements. This result was most likely observed because our two calibration points (peak and trough) were exactly the values that we subsequently measured. It is unlikely that any values in between would be accurately calibrated, which highlights the fact that sensors based on intensity PD173074 price measurement need to be calibrated specifically for the ranges and conditions in which they are intended to be used. A second potential limitation of any intravascular oxygen sensing is that in vivo   sensors are prone to biofouling with adsorbed material such as fibrin or large MEK activity clots, which would impair the signal recorded by the sensor. This is a long recognised problem with intravascular sensors

( Severinghaus and Astrup, 1986). In this respect, all four of our in-house PMMA sensors remained free from clotting after continuous immersion in non-heparinised flowing blood for a period of 24 h (see Fig. 4). This lack of clotting on the surface of the PMMA sensor suggests that it would be capable of measuring PaO2PaO2 oscillations at least for a 24-h period, a much longer period than that considered in previous studies. Our results demonstrate that the commercial AL300 fibre optic oxygen sensor currently used in animal research has a relatively slow response time for the detection of rapid PaO2PaO2 oscillations, and would not be Venetoclax research buy accurate at varying levels of oxygen saturations or high RR. Furthermore, it is made with ruthenium, a toxic material that is reported to be unsafe in the clinical setting (Yasbin et al., 1980). It is currently unknown whether the AL300 sensor is resistant to clotting when challenged with

continuous immersion in whole blood for a period of 24 h, hence it is unknown how immersion in blood for this duration of time may affect its performance. In contrast, the in-house PMMA sensor demonstrates that faster oxygen sensing technology is now available made of materials suitable for clinical application, and resistant to clotting for at least 24 h. The apparatus that we have described here is also suitable to be used with fast time response SaO2 sensors, if and when they are constructed, or with any other intravascular pH or CO2 sensor. The laboratory and animal work was supported by a Wellcome Trust Translation Award, Wellcome Trust, UK. We are grateful for the skilled technical assistance offered by our colleagues Jiri Chvojka, Jan Benes, Lenka Ledvinova, Vojtech Danihel at the Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Czech Republic, and by our colleagues Chris Salter and Alison Crossley at the Department of Materials, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.

Geomorphic processes related to incision are dynamic and have occ

Geomorphic processes related to incision are dynamic and have occurred to an extent such that

humans cannot easily manage modern incised riparian systems. Consideration of coupled human–landscape feedbacks helps to determine if geomorphic adjustments eventually lead to a stable channel form with hydrologic connectivity between the channel and a new floodplain. Alternatively, construction of erosion control structures will lead to progressive channelization and more BMS354825 incision without connectivity. Effective management of incised river systems that exemplify the “Anthropocene” will depend on a new understanding of such coupled human–landscape interactions. We appreciate helpful discussion with Patty Madigan, Linda MacElwee (Mendocino Resource Conservation District and the Navarro River Resource Center), and Katherine Gledhill (West Coast Watershed) and thank them for sharing insights about Robinson Creek. We also thank Troy Passmore, Danya Davis, and Max Marchol for field assistance. Helpful suggestions and insights from two anonymous reviewers and thoughtful comments from Associate Editor Mark Taylor greatly strengthened this manuscript. We are grateful to Frances Malamud-Roam and James Van Bonn (Caltrans) for providing historical data and to the Mendocino County Historical Society

for sharing photographs from the Robert J. Lee Photographic Collection. “
“The alteration of Earth’s surface by humans is a growing concern among modern civilizations because it is considered unsustainable (Hooke et al., 2012). This transformation has been documented by geoscientists and click here geographers from various sub-disciplines for some time (Geiss et al., 2004, Hooke, 2000, Syvitski et al.,

2005, Trimble, 1974, Walter and Merritts, 2008 and Wilkinson, 2005). Biogeochemical and physical changes to the planet’s surface and the depositional and erosional record resulting from human impact are considered a major turning point in Earth’s history and a formal Anthropocene Levetiracetam epoch, or age, global stratigraphic boundary has been proposed (Zalasiewicz, 2013 and Zalasiewicz et al., 2008). Such a boundary could prove quite useful to geomorphologists as it provides a distinct stratigraphic marker from which one could contextualize Earth surface processes and their relation to humans as geomorphic agents (Hooke, 2000). However, there are a number of controversies surrounding the proposed Anthropocene boundary designation (Autin and Holbrook, 2012): (1) human impacts on the stratigraphic record vary spatially and are time-transgressive; (2) impacts on the stratigraphic record have occurred on the order of an instant to 103 years, a resolution higher than that attainable in the rock record; and (3) uncertainty in defining a terminal boundary for the Anthropocene because humans continue to transform land at astonishing rates (Hooke, 2000).

, 2007 and Steffen et al , 2011) suggested that AD 1800, roughly

, 2007 and Steffen et al., 2011) suggested that AD 1800, roughly the start of the Industrial Revolution in Europe, be considered as the beginning of the Anthropocene. Others have taken a longer view, especially Ruddiman, 2003, Bortezomib in vivo Ruddiman, 2005 and Ruddiman, 2013, who argued that greenhouse gas concentrations, deforestation, soil erosion, plant and animal extinctions, and associated climate changes all accelerated at least 8000 years ago with wide-scale global farming (see also Smith and Zeder, 2014). Doughtry et al. (2010) suggested that the Anthropocene should be pushed back to 14,000 or 15,000

years ago, eliminating the Holocene, and correlating with the extinction of Pleistocene megafauna and the associated climate changes brought on by these events. At the other end of the spectrum, some scholars argue for a starting date of AD 1950, based on changes in riverine fluxes (Maybeck and Vörösmarty, 2005) or the appearance of artificial radionucliotides resulting from atomic detonations (Crutzen and Steffen, 2003). In 2008, a proposal

for the formal designation of the Anthropocene was presented to the Stratigraphy Commission of the Geological Society of London (Zalasiewicz et al., 2008). An Anthropocene Working Group, part of the Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy, has been formed to SCH727965 in vitro help determine if the Anthropocene will be formally accepted into the Geological Time Scale and when it began (Zalasiewicz et al., 2010,

p. 2228). In line with Crutzen’s arguments, the proposal suggests a genesis at the dawn of the Industrial Revolution or the nuclear era of the 1950s. Ultimately, any date chosen for the beginning of the Anthropocene is likely to be relatively arbitrary and controversial, a point at which scientists can logically argue that we have moved from a planet dominated by natural processes into one dominated by anthropogenic forces. No single date can do justice, moreover, to the long process of human geographic expansion, technological Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) development, and economic change that led up to the Industrial Revolution, the nuclear age, or any other singular hallmark in planetary history. As demonstrated by the papers in this issue, archeology—the study of material remains left behind by past human cultures—has much to contribute to understanding the deep history of human impacts on earth’s landscapes and ecosystems. From the controversial and often polarized debates about the history of anthropogenically driven extinctions, to the origins and spread of agricultural and pastoral societies, the effects of humans on marine fisheries and coastal ecosystems, to the acceleration of colonialism and globalization, archeological records can be utilized by scholars to understand not just when humans dominated earth’s ecosystems, but the processes that led to such domination.

Mu50 (NRS1) [1] and MI (NRS3) [47] represent high-level VISA, whe

Mu50 (NRS1) [1] and MI (NRS3) [47] represent high-level VISA, whereas the majority of clinical VISA strains are low-level VISA (Table 1). As illustrated in Fig. 4B, introduction of graR(N197S) raised vancomycin resistance of hVISA strain Mu3 to the level of a low-level VISA, and subsequent introduction of rpoB(H481Y) converted it into high-level VISA indistinguishable from Mu50 [34]. Subsequently, the VISA phenotype of Mu50 was successfully Galunisertib reconstituted in VSSA strain N315ΔIP by sequentially introducing four mutations, i.e. vraS(S329L),

msrR(E146K), graR(N197S) and rpoB(H481Y) (Katayama Y, unpublished data) ( Fig. 4B). However, we were not convinced with the idea that combination of graR and rpoB mutations was the only way for Mu3 to become high-level VISA. To obtain a more comprehensive view on the genetic events underlying hVISA-to-VISA conversion, we established 45 high-level VISA strains by selecting Mu3 and its related hVISA strains with 6 mg/L vancomycin and determined their whole genome sequences [38]. VISA is generated by spontaneous mutation from hVISA at a frequency

of ≥10−6[3], [48] and [49]. Since the usual appearance rate for a spontaneous mutation is ca. 10−8–10−9, such a high incidence of emergence of VISA from hVISA indicates the presence of great numbers of alternative mutations. The whole-genome sequences of 45 VISA-converted mutant strains revealed a surprising result that each converted strain had one to four mutations, but no two strains shared the same mutation [38]. Table 2 shows the Buparlisib molecular weight list of non-synonymous single mutation found in 32 of the 45 VISA-converted strains. Each strain carried a unique mutation in 1 of the 20 genes. Therefore, those genes listed in Table 2 were considered to have a direct contribution to the hVISA-to-VISA phenotypic conversion as a single determinant. By far the most

frequently affected genes were rpoB and rpoC in six strains, cmk in another six strains, followed by tarO in three strains [38]. They affected various cellular processes and metabolic pathways of the cell, and five of them were reported previously in association with raised vancomycin resistance, including Reverse transcriptase SAHV_1209 encoding PP2C phosphatase [50], pbp4 [51], rpoB [34], [39] and [52], rpoC [53] and walK [28], [29], [30] and [54]. Reduction in PBP4 activity decreases PG cross-linkages and thus increases the number of false targets of vancomycin. PP2C phosphatase and the walKR TCRS are considered to be associated with cell wall metabolism and the control of autolysis [50] and [55]. Accelerated cell wall synthesis and decreased autolysis are two alternative ways to thicken cell wall PG layers. In this regard, it is also noteworthy that the orf SAHV_1760 encoding putative autolysin is among the singly mutated gene list ( Table 2). As shown in Table 1, rpoB mutation is frequently found in clinical VISA strains.

Therefore, it is believed that the present study is the first to

Therefore, it is believed that the present study is the first to obtain reproducible evidence for schoolchildren aged FDA-approved Drug Library 7 to 11 years. The use of CARDIOKID in other studies will allow for its improvement and the assessment of its effectiveness in measuring changes in knowledge after educational interventions. The questionnaire showed satisfactory validity and reliability (internal consistency and reproducibility), and was easy to apply and easy to understand, allowing its use in studies on healthy habits and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases with

children of this age range. FAPICC (Fundo de Apoio à Pesquisa do Instituto de Cardiologia do RS/FUC à Ciência e a Cultura) and FAPERGS (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul)/CAPES (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior). The authors declare no conflicts of interest. “
“The main aspect

of sickle-cell anemia (SCA) physiopathology is the vaso-occlusive crisis, also called a painful crisis, resulting from the polymerization of hemoglobin S that causes red blood cells to assume a “sickle” shape, resulting in the obstruction of small-caliber blood vessels, tissue hypoxia, necrosis, and severe see more pain.1 Among the consequences of red blood cell sickling are painful vaso-occlusive crises, stroke,2 and Montelukast Sodium chronic hemolytic anemia.3 Pulmonary complications account for 20% to 30% of deaths in adults with SCA, followed the pulmonary lesions

caused by upper airway (UA) obstruction.4 Regarding children with SCA, an important causal factor of airway obstruction is adenotonsillar hypertrophy (ATH). Salles et al.5 observed a prevalence of 55.3% of obstructive ATH in children and adolescents with SCA. When this UA obstruction is associated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), it can precipitate episodes of hypoxemia,6 increasing the risk of vaso-occlusive crises.7 The nocturnal arterial oxyhemoglobin desaturation in SCA occurs in up to 83% of children with the disease, and may result from OSAS or pulmonary disease, or may be secondary to the decreased oxygen affinity of hemoglobin S.8 Oxyhemoglobin desaturation is common during sleep, which is associated with hypoventilation and is exacerbated by UA obstruction;6 in patients with SCA, there may be increased risk for airway obstruction due to ATH.9 Factors that worsen UA obstruction are ATH and the craniofacial consequences caused by obstructive ATH itself, such as predominant mouth breathing; vertical, horizontal, and transverse maxillary alterations, incompetent lip seal; and unbalanced orofacial muscles, mainly the mandibular elevator and depressor muscles.

In public health, the possible changes in risks from the past lea

In public health, the possible changes in risks from the past lead to a wish to know the future development,

aimed to plan and determine budget priorities and necessary health services.13 Few investigations have studied the trend of leukemia in Brazilian children and adolescents. In a study conducted in Fortaleza,14 there was a decreasing trend in mortality from leukemia. In the present investigation, the same pattern was found for an overall analysis of all leukemias in both genders. However, when leukemia was analyzed by specific subgroups, the behavior was shown to be different. While leukemias here classified as “other types” showed a decrease in mortality in all age groups (Fig. 2), the lymphoid leukemias BAY 73-4506 showed an increasing trend in the age group 15-19 years (Fig. 3). When considering only the gender, the pattern also changed: the mortality rates from leukemias in males and females showed an increasing trend. Studies CP-690550 price performed in Latin American countries (Brazil, Chile, and the Dominican Republic) showed a decrease in the mortality trend. This behavior can be explained by the improvement in cancer diagnostic techniques and increasingly effective chemotherapy

protocols, procedures that directly reflect the improved disease prognosis.15 The present study showed an increasing mortality trend at ages 15-19 years for lymphoid leukemias, for both genders. The Latin-American study15 discusses this difference by asserting that protocols for the treatment of adolescents and young adults are not adequate for this age group, since patients sometimes are treated as adults and sometimes as pediatric patients, and that special physical and psychological needs for this age group are not recognized. This inappropriate treatment is demonstrated as differences in survival between the age groups. It is necessary to recognize the differences in the biological characteristics of the disease, which will lead to further advances in lymphoid leukemia therapeutic protocols for older children (older than 10 years). The toxicity and mortality associated

with treatment have been discussed in specific studies on leukemia, which can influence the increased rates of mortality in certain groups. There selleck screening library have been reports that intensive chemotherapy in patients with acute lymphoid leukemia leads to severe neutropenia, exposing patients to infections that can cause death (41% of deaths in a sample were related to septic shock).16 Estimates have described that deaths related to acute lymphoid leukemia treatment in less developed countries range between 11% and 20%; for acute myeloid leukemia, it may reach 33%.17 The lack of information about data quality and possible migration of cases, as well as the heterogeneity of Brazilian rates, are limitations of the study and need to be considered when assessing the conclusions.

The two formulations F1 and F2 with their respective

The two formulations F1 and F2 with their respective Trametinib solubility dmso PEG 400: T-80 ratios 8/8% and 8/6% (w/v), respectively, had the proficiency of yielding smaller particle size or nanoparticles of the drug. This may have occurred due to the possible arrest of growth of nucleating crystals by the mentioned surfactant T-80 or polymer PEG 400 through steric or electrostatic mechanism [21]. On the other hand, formulations F3, F4 and F5 with respective PEG 400: T-80 ratios 8/2%, 8/1%, 8/0.05% (w/v) showed significantly higher particle size along with increased PDI ( Table 1). The transmission electron microscopic morphological

observation obtained for the formulation F5 revealed the higher particle size of the drug in formulation ( Fig. 3b). The aggregation seen in formulations (F3 to F5) as a function of decreased concentration of T-80 resulted in the increased particle size and PDI which implies that maintenance of T-80 at 6% (w/v) is the minimum necessary requirement [16], to maintain its steric inhibitory effect on the formation of larger particles ( Fig. 2). Other possible mechanism that can be proposed in this context is the existence of PM181104 as a non-ionized solute having better solubility behavior in non-ionic surfactant. As per our observation the effect of non-ionic surfactant concentration on the particle size of the drug and subsequent solubility is in contrast with the experimental observations made by [11]. In

parallel studies, with reference to determining the effect of reduced selleck chemical concentration of PEG 400, a set of three formulations F6, F7 and F8 with their stiochiometric ratios of T-80: PEG 400 at 8/6,8/1,8/0.5% (w/v) were prepared to check for particle size and solubility of the drug. Surprisingly, the particle size and PDI for all these formulations were significantly small (around 50 nm)

and Branched chain aminotransferase they were almost comparable to the values obtained for F1 and F2 (Table 2). The absence of any precipitation or aggregation even at decreased concentration of PEG 400 indicates that the PEG 400 concentration has no effect what so ever on the particle size and solubility of the drug. This implies that T-80 has an influencing effect on nanoparticle generation due to its high molecular mass (1310 g mol−1), almost equivalent to that of PM181104 (1514 g mol−1). Where as PEG 400 is a low molecular mass (380–420 g mol−1) molecule (Fig. 2). This difference in the molecular mass appears to be having a steric effect on the nanoparticle size and solubility as they have differential effect of adsorption rate on the particle surface which may be a controlling factor in the formulation of nanoparticles [22]. Physical appearances of the formulated solutions are shown in Fig. 3a. The solutions in the first two glass vials are clear and colorless formulations followed by semi-transparent formulations and then a set of clear and colorless stock of formulations.