Kind regards, Ursula Culligan “
“Over the last decades, the

Kind regards, Ursula Culligan “
“Over the last decades, the use of polymers as food packaging materials has increased considerably due to their advantages over other traditional materials such as glass or

tinplate. A selleck chemical great advantage of plastics is the large variety of materials and compositions available, so the most convenient packaging design can be adapted to the very specific needs of each product (López-Rubio et al., 2004). However, it is widely accepted that the use of long-lasting polymers for short-lived applications (packaging, catering, surgery, hygiene) is not entirely adequate (Avérous, 2004). A huge amount of garbage is generated daily, in which food packaging plays a considerable part. This waste is composed of many different types of material, some of which is not biodegradable and will remain without decomposing for hundreds, sometimes thousands of years. In this context, the development of biodegradable films (BF) for packaging materials that can be used as a substitute for petrochemical polymers is an interesting perspective, since it provides an alternative to non-degradable products, and increases income in the agricultural sector (Souza, Ditchfield, & Tadini,

2010). Starch has been considered as one of the most promising candidates for the future primarily because of an attractive combination of its large availability and relatively low price (Chivrac, Angellier-Coussy, Guillard, Pollet, & Avérous, 2010). Cassava starch has been extensively used to produce BF (Alves et al., 2007, Chen and Lai, 2008, Chillo et al., 2008, Famá et al., 2006, Famá et al., 2007, Flores et al., 2007, Henrique et al., 2008, Kechichian et al., 2010, Mali et al., 2006, Müller et al., 2008, Paes et al., 2008, Parra et al., 2004, Shimazu et al., 2007, Teixeira et al., 2007, The Tobramycin et al., 2009,

Veiga-Santos, Oliveira et al., 2005, Veiga-Santos, Suzuki et al., 2005 and Veiga-Santos et al., 2008) and the results indicated that these carbohydrates are promising materials in this regard (Müller et al., 2008). Films developed from starch are described as isotropic, odorless, tasteless, colorless, non-toxic and biologically degradable (Flores et al., 2007). Unfortunately, there are some strong limitations for developing starch based products, since they present poor tensile properties and high water vapor permeability when compared to conventional films derived from crude oil (Souza et al., 2010) on account of their hydrophilic nature and their sensitivity to moisture content, a factor that is difficult to control (Wilhelm, Sierakowski, Souza, & Wypych, 2003).

oryzae from a 2012–2013 Arkansas collection, a fast and simple pr

oryzae from a 2012–2013 Arkansas collection, a fast and simple procedure was developed to prepare DNA for PCR amplification. The procedure included two steps: (1) M. oryzae-inoculated filter paper pieces were stored for a minimum of 5 months at –20 °C and transferred to 100 μL of TE (10 ×, pH 7.5, Tris and EDTA) in a 0.5-mL Eppendorf tube using a sterile loop ( Fig. 1). The tube was then incubated in a thermocycler at 95 °C for 10 min, and (2) after selleck incubation, the tube was spun for 1 min at 3000 r min− 1 to prepare the DNA for PCR. The PCR reaction was modified as follows. Instead of 1 μmol L− 1 of primer in the final PCR reaction, 2.5 μmol L− 1 of primer was used to increase reproducibility

and the success rate of PCR amplification. To evaluate the quality and stability of the extracted DNA, 1 μL was repeatedly used throughout the PCR tests on the extraction day and on days 4, 8, 10, and 18 of refrigerated storage (Fig. 2). Predicted PCR products were amplified

from fungal structures maintained on filter paper, and from DNA prepared by a conventional procedure as a control (Fig. 2). Isolates that did not yield predicted PCR products were confirmed by PCR amplification using another primer, AVR9-YJ that is specific to the selleck products coding region of the same gene (Fig. 2-D). However, the presence of AVR-Pi9 in isolates 12, 13, 14, and 28 was undetermined ( Fig. 2-D). The same set of DNA was also tested using primers YL149/YL169, confirming the presence of AVR-Pita1 in 15 isolates. Again the four isolates in which AVR-Pi9 was not amplified showed no amplification of AVR-Pita1, suggesting problems with the fungal structures or their DNA quality for PCR ( Fig. 2-E). Gene detection using PCR is a common method of microbial identification and diagnosis. Although PCR amplification can be directly performed using various microbial cultures, prior isolation of DNA is often Protein kinase N1 preferred. The DNA extraction process eliminates unknown interfering substances and appears largely to ensure consistent

test results. Toward this end, considerable efforts have been made to improve DNA preparation from fungi [6], [7], [8], [13] and [14]. Many of these methods rely on using a grinder (with or without liquid nitrogen) to break up the mycelia. However, this is a time-consuming task when large number of samples are to be processed. In the present study, the whole procedure can be completed within 11 min at the cost only of TE buffer for sample preparation. It works by disrupting the cell wall and releasing DNA using a high temperature, 95 °C, into a highly concentrated TE solution for 10 min. It is important to note that some samples failed to yield PCR products when only 1 μmol L− 1 of each primer was used (data not shown). However, 2.5 μmol L− 1 of primer was able to ensure successful PCR amplification for most of the samples tested.

The Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects at the Dartmou

The Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects at the Dartmouth College Institutional Review Board approved the project (CPHS #23687). For the pilot stage, we administered the measure to patients immediately following clinic appointments. Initial item formulations were based

on core Tanespimycin research buy aspects of the principles of shared decision making [44], [45], [47] and [48], and on a detailed analysis of existing measurement challenges [1]. Given our pre-specified goal of creating a brief measure, we adopted the two core elements of share decision making described above: (i) provision of information or explanation to the patient about the relevant health issues or possible treatment options and (ii) elicitation of the patient’s preferences related to the health issues or treatment options. We then generated several versions of scale items to assess

the presence or absence of these elements of care from the patient’s perspective, and these were presented to interview participants. All candidate items generated avoided the use of the term ‘decision’ for the reasons outlined above. We conducted two stages of interviews with approximately 12 participants per stage [49]. An initial set of items were assessed in stage one. Refined items were then assessed in stage two, and further modifications made. In stage three, a final set of items was piloted with patients as they left a clinic appointment, to assess acceptability, ease of use and estimate completion 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl times. Cognitive interviews click here [36] are a recognized step of instrument development methods [35]. We wanted to know how individuals would interpret survey items designed to assess their views with regard to whether shared decision making had taken place in their encounters with providers. We specifically wanted to know whether their interpretations were aligned with the dimensions we wished to measure. Participants were given time to read a set of candidate items, with alternative forms. Preset questions and probes were used [36]. We asked, for example: “Do the words in the question make sense?”; “Is

there anything you find confusing or poorly worded?” We wanted to identify concerns about unfamiliar words, e.g. “What does the term ‘healthcare provider’ mean to you?”, and to assess whether any phrases were likely to be misunderstood “What does the term ‘how much effort’ mean to you?” We also wanted to check the face validity of the item by asking the question: “In your own words, what do you think the question is asking? Participants were also asked about their views about potential response score anchors in stage one. We asked participants to assess the degree of ‘effort’ made by providers to achieve specified tasks and offered the following minimal-level anchors: ‘No effort’, ‘No effort at all’, ‘No effort was made’ or ‘None’, and the following maximum-level anchors: ‘Every effort’, ‘Every effort was made’, ‘A huge effort’ or ‘A massive effort’.

A usual intake of 20 g protein at least, probably just after phys

A usual intake of 20 g protein at least, probably just after physical exercise, is recommended as muscle sensitivity to amino acids may be increased after exercise.24 Another aspect is the amino acid content of the protein source, as leucine has been reported as an interesting stimulating factor for muscle protein synthesis. From the available studies, it is accepted that 2.0 to 2.5 g of leucine intake should be contained in the amino acid mixture.24 and 25 Some individuals may not be able to tolerate

exercise (eg, those with acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina, uncontrolled arrhythmia) or very high protein/amino acid supplementation (eg, nondialyzed late-stage kidney patients). As always, all treatment decisions are guided by clinical judgment selleck chemical and a full perspective of the patient’s health condition. In these situations, muscle electrical stimulation may be

an effective therapy to help alleviate muscle loss.186, 187 and 188 PROT-AGE recommendations on dietary protein and amino acid quality for older people • The list of indispensable amino acids is qualitatively identical for young and old adults. For older people, a high-quality protein is one that has a high likelihood of promoting healthy aging or improving age-related problems and diseases. Protein quality was traditionally defined by amino acid composition,

as measured by selleck kinase inhibitor an essential amino acid score or by the ratio of essential to nonessential nitrogen. It was believed that a high-quality protein supplied all needed amino acids in quantities sufficient to satisfy demands for ongoing protein synthesis in the human body; however, the definition of protein quality has evolved in recent years. Protein quality still considers amino acid content but also includes new concepts: digestibility and absorption of the protein, as well as newly recognized roles of specific amino acids in regulation of cellular processes.147 and 189 The following section reviews state-of-the-art understanding Isoconazole of protein quality and relates these concepts to practical aspects of protein intake by older adults. Nutritive amino acids were originally classified as essential (no endogenous synthesis pathway in humans possible) or non-essential (endogenous enzymatic synthesis possible). This simple classification did not take all physiological situations into account, so the classification was revised.190 and 191 Dispensable amino acids can be synthesized by the human body in sufficient amounts for all physiological situations. Indispensable amino acids are never synthesized in humans because enzymatic pathways are lacking; supplies must be provided from dietary sources.

The earlier works also do not consider relaxation caused by the f

The earlier works also do not consider relaxation caused by the formation of Xe–131Xe van der Waals complexes that leads to a gas density independent relaxation term [24], [25], [26] and [27]

at the field strengths and gas pressures used in this work. Like the longitudinal relaxation, the spectral features observed in 131Xe NMR are dominated by this isotope’s high nuclear spin and large nuclear quadrupole moment. If 131Xe is placed in an anisotropic environment, for instance when dissolved in a liquid crystal, a triplet is observed in the NMR spectrum that displays resonance line learn more splittings in the kHz regime. The triplet in liquid crystalline phase is caused by interactions of the nuclear quadrupole moment with the electric field gradient (EFG) induced by the anisotropic solvent (see [28] for a review). Even the surfaces of macroscopic containers can cause a 131Xe quadrupolar

splitting that can be detected in the gas phase. This splitting was originally observed in spin-exchange optical pumping experiments at low magnetic fields of a few mG IDH inhibitor drugs (see below) [29], [30], [31], [32], [33], [34] and [35]. However, the effect of surface orientation and temperature on the gas phase 131Xe quadrupolar splitting can also be observed in thermally polarized high-field NMR spectroscopy [36] and [37]. Another unique property of 131Xe is

that a quadrupolar splitting pattern of a few Hz can also be generated in the bulk gas phase, independent of the presence of surfaces [19]. The effect is caused by high magnetic fields, B→0, that generate an electric field gradient (EFG) in atoms located within this field. The EFG is a result of interactions Sorafenib of the external magnetic field B→0 with the magnetization M→ of the xenon electron cloud. The EFG tensor orientation is always aligned with B→0, thus leading to a quadrupolar splitting, reminiscent of the much stronger splittings in liquid crystals. As was shown previously with thermally polarized 131Xe [19], this “high-field’ quadrupolar splitting displays a quadratic dependence upon |B→0|. Theoretical papers following the initial experimental observation agree with the quadratic magnetic field dependence of the splitting, but disagreed about the presence of an additional linear term [38] and [39]. At current, a magnetic field dependent splitting has only been observed with the noble gas isotope 131Xe, due to its unique combination of a large and easily distortable electron cloud, spherical symmetry of the unbound noble gas atoms, ‘high resolution grade’ NMR linewidth in the gas phase, and its large nuclear electric quadrupole moment at a relatively small spin I = 3/2 value.

0001) From the amount of crop loading and the duration of the fo

0001). From the amount of crop loading and the duration of the foraging stays we estimated the mean suction rate per stay (crop loading/duration of foraging stay), which increased exponentially with Ta ( Fig. 10B). This increase was much steeper in dependence on Thd. However, we also noticed that the bees did not always drink continuously during the whole foraging

stay. They made short interruptions and often showed periods of self-grooming and walking. Especially towards the end of their stays they mTOR inhibitor filled in time for pre-flight warm-up to reach a sufficient thorax temperature for an optimal take off. Unfortunately, our thermographic sequences did not allow exact identification of drinking pauses. From our own observations and earlier measurements of Schmaranzer (2000) we estimated actual duration of suction to be about 85% of the total duration of a stay on average. The curves calculated with this

assumption matches measurements of the suction Navitoclax chemical structure rate of Ressi (1989) closely (conducted at Ta and Twater = 25 °C). The suction rate increased exponential from 0.6 to 2.2 mg s−1 as Thead increased from 26 to 36 °C (Q10 = 3.7; Fig. 10B). However, correlation with the ambient temperature in this range of Ta resulted in a smaller elevation of the suction rate, from 1.6 to 2.9 mg s−1 (Q10 = 1.8). Digby (1955) investigated the factors affecting the temperature excess of dead or anesthesized insects in artificial sunlight under Racecadotril laboratory conditions and found the temperature excess to vary directly with the radiation strength, similar to our dead bees. This applies to living insects only in the ectothermic state. Foraging honeybees, however, are always endothermic at medium to low Ta ( Heinrich, 1979a, Schmaranzer and Stabentheiner, 1988 and Kovac and Schmaranzer, 1996). In our water foragers endothermy was at a low level or absent only at high Ta (>∼30 °C; see below and Fig. 6, Fig. 7 and Fig. 8). The same was observed in water foraging vespine wasps (Vespula; Kovac et al., 2009). However, the thermoregulatory behavior of our water foraging bees differed from that of vespine wasps ( Fig. 6A–C, Table 3) at moderate Ta (∼20–30 °C). The bees’

thorax temperature excess decreased slightly with increasing radiation whereas it increased in Vespula. At high Ta (>∼30 °C), by contrast, the thorax temperature excess increased in both. The relation between body temperature and ambient temperature shows impressively the thermoregulatory ability of the water foraging honeybees (Fig. 3 and Fig. 6). The thorax temperature was regulated independent of Ta (in sunshine and shade) in a broad range of Ta (∼3–30 °C). This resembles an investigation on honeybees collecting water in shade ( Schmaranzer, 2000). Similar to our study he reported mean thoracic temperatures of 36.0–38.8 °C (Ta = 13.6–27.2 °C). Bees foraging from other natural resources like flowers regulate their thoracic temperature at a somewhat lower level.

C30), Red cell lysing Buffer Hybri-Max™ (product no R7757), pota

C30), Red cell lysing Buffer Hybri-Max™ (product no. R7757), potassium periodate, iodonitrotetrazolium chloride, superoxide dismutase from bovine erythrocytes, xanthine, xanthine oxidase, and Purpald® were from Sigma-Aldrich Chemie GmbH (Steinheim, Germany). Hydrogen peroxide solution (35%) was purchased from Carl Roth GmbH + Co. KG (Karlsruhe, Germany). The animal experiment was performed in accordance with the guidelines for the care and use of animals for experimental procedures and approved by the Regional Council

of Stuttgart, Germany. Forty male Wistar rats (200-250 g; Janvier, Le Genest Saint-Isle, France) were used because male rats, contrary to female rats, can be housed in groups and randomized into groups of ten animals with similar mean body weights (Table 1) and kept in groups of 3-4 animals per cage under standard conditions (22 ± 2 °C, 55 ± 5% relative humidity, 12 h light/dark cycle). Cages (type IV) were equipped with softwood bedding, a water bottle, and a plastic tube. Animals were fed a modified standard rodent diet (C1000; modifications:

vitamin A, 2,500 IU; vitamin E, 30 mg; selenium, 150 μg; all check details values per kg diet; Altromin Spezialfutter GmbH & Co. KG, Lage, Germany) that was free from synthetic antioxidants, plant polyphenols, and ascorbic acid for an acclimation period of one week and then assigned to one of four treatments: 1) the control Palbociclib manufacturer group received the standard diet only, 2) the cypermethrin group received the standard diet fortified with 350 mg/kg α-cypermethrin, 3) the curcumin group the standard diet fortified with 1,000 mg/kg curcumin, and 4) the cypermethrin + curcumin group the standard diet fortified with a combination of 350 mg/kg α-cypermethrin and 1,000 mg/kg curcumin. Animals had free access to water and feed during the entire experiment, which lasted 7 weeks. Blood was collected from the jugular vein into separate K-heparinized tubes after CO2 anaesthesia

and decapitation. Blood samples were centrifuged (3,000 x g, 10 min) to obtain plasma and both whole blood and plasma samples were stored at -80 °C until analysed. Malondialdehyde (MDA) in whole blood and tissues was analysed according a method described by [25]. Briefly, whole blood or homogenates of liver, kidney, brain and fat (25 μl) mixed with 1% sulphuric acid (75 μl) and 6 M NaOH solution (20 μl) were incubated at 60 °C for 30 min (waterbath). After de-proteinisation with 25% perchloric acid (50 μL) supernatant (100 μl) was mixed with 5 mM 2,4-dinitrophenyl-hydrazine (10 μl) and incubated for 30 min before analysis on a Shimadzu Prominence HPLC. The MDA-2,4-dinitrophenyl-hydrazine adduct was separated on a Reprosil-Pur 120 C18 AQ (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm; Trentec) with 50% methanol in formic acid buffer (0.05 M, pH 3.75) at 1 mL/min and detected by UV-VIS at 310 nm.

Na altura terá feito estudo para doença celíaca que foi negativa

Na altura terá feito estudo para doença celíaca que foi negativa. Por análise retrospetiva dos exames de imagem realizados atualmente, pode constatar-se que a suposta invaginação descrita na TC abdominal nada mais era do que a presença do DDI, verificando-se a imagem característica do sinal em «halo». O trânsito duodenal foi de grande importância no diagnóstico do DDI, mostrando o tão característico sinal de «windsock». No estudo com EDA observou-se um esófago com aspeto traqueiforme, duodeno

com pregas espessadas condicionando estenose relativa com restos alimentares impactados e mucosa erosionada e friável. Embora JAK activation essas alterações macroscópicas sejam incaracterísticas, tem-se constatado a sua presença em doentes com GEE mucosa. Foi a histologia que ditou o diagnóstico de GEE mucosa. Ao contrário de alguns casos publicados, neste doente não se visualizou o orifício de entrada do DDI via EDA10. Daporinad molecular weight No caso clínico exposto, a sintomatologia apresentada era escassa e não é a típica de

GEE ou DDI. Provavelmente, a febre inexplicada, com cedência aos antibióticos, poderia estar associada a síndrome de hiperproliferação bacteriana, tanto pela presença do DDI como pelas erosões da mucosa que permitiriam que agentes microbianos atravessassem a barreira intestinal. O tratamento da GEE baseia-se fundamentalmente na corticoterapia (prednisolona 20-40 mg/dia) durante 8 semanas4, com redução progressiva, e visa a resolução dos sintomas14. Em casos graves, corticodependentes ou corticorresistentes, os imunossupressores (azatioprina ou 6-mercaptopurina) constituem uma alternativa1 and 4. Atendendo a que o doente se encontrava sintomático, mas sem gravidade, e que a maioria dos casos de GEE responde aos corticosteróides com uma

taxa de sucesso de 90%, optou-se por instituir corticoterapia. No nosso doente, a resposta terapêutica foi imediata. Contudo, em virtude do caráter crónico da doença, com remissões e recaídas frequentes, apesar do seu caráter benigno, estes doentes devem ser mantidos em consultas de seguimento. Embora, o tratamento tradicional dos pacientes com DDI sintomáticos e de grandes dimensões seja a resseção cirúrgica, atualmente preconiza-se incisão endoscópica13. No caso clínico apresentado, tendo em conta as dimensões do Bacterial neuraminidase DDI (quase 4 cm) e o caráter progressivo desta entidade, colocou-se a hipótese de resseção do DDI. Assim, poder-se-iam evitar possíveis complicações futuras. Apesar da unanimidade em considerar a etiologia da GEE desconhecida, pensamos que o raciocínio fisiopatológico apresentado para explicar a relação causal entre o DDI e a GEE é plausível e, de todo, não desprezável. A grande limitação neste caso é demonstrar a veracidade deste raciocínio fisiopatológico, porque poderemos apenas estar perante um caso clínico com 2 diagnósticos independentes e raros.

In recent work, spin exchange optical pumping (SEOP) of a mixture

In recent work, spin exchange optical pumping (SEOP) of a mixture of 5% krypton with 95% N2 achieved a 83Kr spin polarization of P = 26%, corresponding to a 59,000 fold signal increase compared to the thermal equilibrium 83Kr signal at 9.4 T field strength [20]. SEOP at low krypton concentration was used because high krypton density [Kr] adversely affects SEOP but, unfortunately, fast quadrupolar driven 83Kr T1 relaxation click here in the condensed state generally prevents the cryogenic separation of hp krypton from the gas mixture [21]. The high gas dilution caused a 20 fold reduction of the MRI signal and

it is instructional to define the apparent polarization Papp that takes the dilution into account [20]: equation[1] Papp=P⋅NG/∑iMiwhere [NG] is the noble gas density (here, krypton) and [Mi] refers to the density of other components in

the hp gas mixture (i.e. N2 in this work). The apparent polarization provides a measure of the expected signal from a diluted hp noble gas. The example above (P = 26%) leads to Papp = 1.3% and thus to the same signal of pure krypton gas with P = 1.3% (assuming identical isotopic composition). As an alternative to dilution, Dapagliflozin cost the density [Kr] can be lowered in concentrated krypton mixtures by reducing the SEOP gas pressure [20]. In the current work, this method was modified to extract below ambient pressure hp gas mixture from the SEOP cell followed by compression to ambient

pressure for pulmonary imaging. Hp 83Kr produced with this method was utilized to study SQUARE contrast in an excised rat lung. Spin exchange optical pumping (SEOP) with rubidium produced hp 83Kr via batch mode as described in detail elsewhere [20]. Spin polarization measurements used natural abundance krypton gas (99.995% purity; 11.5% 83Kr; Airgas, Rednor, PA, USA), whereas the MR images presented in this publication utilized enriched 83Kr (99.925% 83Kr, CHEMGAS, Boulogne, France) for improved signal intensity. A 25% krypton–75% N2 (99.999% purity, Air Liquide, Coleshill, UK) mixture was used for SEOP because Staurosporine it was previously proven to lead to high hp 83Kr signal intensities [20] and allowed for economical usage of the expensive isotopically enriched 83Kr gas. Spin polarization was determined by comparison of the hp gas signal in a single pulse experiment with that from a thermally polarized krypton gas [20]. In baseline polarization measurements the hp gas was transferred by gas expansion directly into a pre-evacuated borosilicate glass cell located in the r.f. detection coil without usage of the extraction unit.

If the reticulocyte count is low one should suspect bone marrow s

If the reticulocyte count is low one should suspect bone marrow suppression or plasma volume expansion

(rare). With high reticulocytes one must rule out blood loss; this can be either internal or external. With no evidence of blood loss one should suspect hemolysis. A Coombs test may be performed to rule out immune-mediated hemolysis. Other clues to immune hemolytic anemia include: rouleaux formation of RBC or monocyte ingestion of RBC on the peripheral smear. A quick test for cold agglutinins is to place an Wnt antagonist anticoagulated tube of blood in the refrigerator: clumping of the RBC after 30–60 minutes suggests the presence of a cold agglutinin. If the above tests are non-diagnostic one should consider intrinsic RBC defects (membrane disorders, hemoglobinopathies or enzyme defects) or extrinsic problems (microangiopathies, R428 cost infections, toxins, other). The key to correct diagnosis of the normocytic

hemolytic anemias is careful review of red cell morphology on the peripheral smear. The paleness of microcytic RBC is due to thinness of the cells. The MCHC is the same in microcytic and normal RBC. Differential diagnosis of microcytosis is given in table III. Lead poisoning should be suspected when there is abnormal basophilic stippling of the RBC. More than 95% of patients with lead poisoning have concurrent iron deficiency. Bcl-w Clues in the differential diagnosis between iron deficiency and beta thalassemia trait are given in table IV. In my experience the most helpful of these are: clear or colorless plasma, a high RDW (red cell volume distribution width) and a low iron/iron binding capacity

(Fe/FeBC) in iron deficiency. Importantly, for any given level of anemia, the RBC morphology on a peripheral smear is greater in patients with beta thalassemia trait than in iron deficiency. The Mentzer index (MCV/RBC) may be helpful since patients with thalassemia trait tend to have smaller red cells with more RBC for any degree of anemia. However, the index tends to be less reliable in patients with minimal or severe anemia [3]. Another important differential in microcytic anemia is between iron deficiency and the anemia of chronic disease (Tab. V). A very low MCV favors iron deficiency. However, there may be a large overlap of test values between these two categories of disease. In addition, many patients may have both problems. Recent data suggest that the ratio transferring receptor (TfR)/log ferritin maybe helpful in resolving this problem since the two diagnoses have opposite effects on both the numerator and denominator of this ratio. Nevertheless some patients will have intermediate values and in those cases a therapeutic trial of iron may be helpful. Increased PMN may be due to many causes in addition to infection. The differential diagnosis (Tab.