We report that while none of the gp41 cluster I antibodies studie

We report that while none of the gp41 cluster I antibodies studied were polyspecific, all three gp41 cluster II antibodies bound either to lipids or autoantigens, thus showing the propensity of cluster II antibodies to manifest polyreactivity. All cluster II gp41 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), including those that were lipid reactive, failed to bind to gp41 MPER peptide-lipid complexes. Cluster II antibodies bound strongly with nanomolar binding affinity (dissociation constant [K-d]) to oligomeric gp140 proteins, and thus, they recognize conformational epitopes on gp41 that are distinct from those of neutralizing gp41 antibodies.

These results demonstrate that lipid-reactive gp41 cluster II antibodies are nonneutralizing due to their inability to bind to the relevant

KPT-8602 cost neutralizing epitopes on gp41.”
“We have established that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection modulates the biology of target primary peripheral blood monocytes, allowing HCMV to use monocytes as “”vehicles”" for its systemic spread. HCMV infection of monocytes results in rapid induction of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase [PI(3) K] and NF-kappa B activities. Integrins, Akt inhibitor which are upstream of the PI(3) K and NF-kappa B pathways, were shown to be involved in HCMV binding to and entry into fibroblasts, suggesting that receptor ligand-mediated signaling following viral binding to integrins on monocytes could trigger the functional changes seen in infected monocytes. We now show that integrin engagement and the activation of the integrin/Src signaling pathway are essential for the induction of HCMV-infected monocyte motility. To investigate how integrin engagement by HCMV triggers monocyte motility, Rucaparib we examined the infected-monocyte transcriptome and found that the integrin/Src signaling pathway regulates the expression of paxillin, which is an important signal transducer in the regulation of actin rearrangement during cell adhesion and movement. Functionally, we observed that paxillin is activated via the integrin/Src signaling pathway and is

required for monocyte motility. Because motility is intimately connected to cellular cytoskeletal organization, a process that is also important in viral entry, we investigated the role paxillin regulation plays in the process of viral entry into monocytes. New results confirmed that HCMV entry into target monocytes was significantly reduced in cells deficient in paxillin expression or the integrin/Src/paxillin signaling pathway. From our data, HCMV-cell interactions emerge as an essential trigger for the cellular changes that allow for HCMV entry and hematogenous dissemination.”
“One proposed HIV vaccine strategy is to induce Gag-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses that can corner the virus, through fitness cost of viral escape and unavailability of compensatory mutations.

Here we develop a model of general ploidy that recovers these thr

Here we develop a model of general ploidy that recovers these three scenarios as special cases and allows JNK-IN-8 clinical trial examination of scenarios that have not been considered previously. Specifically, we: clarify the importance of the implicit assumption of monandry in previous models; show that the cancellation result obtains in some models of ploidy but not in others; and reveal that the cancellation result obtains for different reasons in different models of ploidy. The cancellation result therefore hinges upon a population’s genetic system as well as its demography. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Natural antisense

transcripts (asRNAs) are frequently transcribed from mammalian genes. Recently, we found that non-coding asRNAs are transcribed from

the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of the rat and mouse genes encoding inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which catalyzes the production of the inflammatory mediator nitric oxide. The iNOS asRNA stabilizes iNOS mRNA by interacting with the mRNA 3′UTR. Furthermore, single-stranded ‘sense’ oligonucleotides corresponding to the G418 purchase iNOS mRNA sequence were found to reduce iNOS mRNA levels by interfering with mRNA-asRNA interactions in rat hepatocytes. This method was named natural antisense transcript-targeted regulation (NATRE) technology. In this study, we detected human

iNOS asRNA expressed in hepatocarcinoma and colon carcinoma tissues. The human iNOS asRNA harbored a sequence complementary to an evolutionarily conserved region of the iNOS mRNA 3′UTR. When introduced into hepatocytes, iNOS sense oligonucleotides that were modified by substitution with partial phosphorothioate bonds and locked nucleic acids or 2′-O-methyl nucleic acids greatly reduced levels of iNOS mRNA and iNOS protein. Moreover, sense oligonucleotides and short interfering RNAs decreased iNOS mRNA to comparable levels. These results suggest that NATRE technology using iNOS sense oligonucleotides could potentially be used to treat human inflammatory diseases and cancers by reducing iNOS mRNA levels. (c) Rutecarpine 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The efficacy and safety of the kampo medicine Yokukansan (YKS, TJ-54) in the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) were investigated in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in an open-label study. This study included 26 patients who had been diagnosed as having AD and were not treated with donepezil hydrochloride. These patients were administered YKS (7.5 g/day) for four weeks to investigate the changes in neuropsychological test results and care burden in the period from the start to completion of the study treatment.

A definition proposed here is that such a class

is best d

A definition proposed here is that such a class

is best defined as consisting of the protoplasmic and fibrous astrocytes of the gray and white matter, respectively, the Bergmann glia of the molecular layer of the cerebellum, and the Muller cells of the retina. It IS concluded that the established properties an(I functions of these mature astrocytes are essential support for neuronal activity, in the Sense Of Claude Bernard’s principle of maintaining “”la fixite. du milieu interieur. “”This milieu would be the extracellular Space common to astrocytes Foretinib cell line and neurons. more Specialized roles, such as the recently (described “”light guides”" for retinal Muller cells can also be viewed as

support and facilitation The ECS is also, of course. common to all other neural cells. but here, I limit the diSCUSSion to perturbations of the ECS caused only by neuronal activities and the resolution of these perturbations by astrocytes, such as control of increases in extracellular W, uptake of excitatory amino acids, and alterations in blood vessel diameter and therefore blood flow It is also proposed how this fits into the current morphological picture for the protoplasmic astrocytes as having Small cell bodies with up to 100,000 process endings that occupy Separate territories oil which the processes of neighboring astrocytes Scarcely intrude.”
“Purpose: Androgen deprivation therapy is the primary treatment for Selumetinib advanced prostate cancer but many patients eventually experience progression to hormone refractory status. Understanding the molecular changes after androgen deprivation therapy would help evaluate the efficacy or failure of second line therapies. Therefore, we analyzed the expression of the tumor suppressor phosphatase

and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), the human epidermal receptor-2 and neuroendocrine differentiation after bicalutamide monotherapy, which is emerging as an alternative treatment for locally advanced prostate cancer.

Materials and Methods: Molecular arrangements were evaluated in 107 radical prostatectomy specimens from patients given 150 mg bicalutamide before surgery. Pathological regressive changes, and the correlation of postoperative biochemical failure with the extent Metformin cell line of molecular arrangements and pathological effects were analyzed.

Results: Patients with minimal regression effects after bicalutamide therapy had advanced pathological stage disease, and tended to have positive chromogranin A expression and PTEN inactivation. Only 4 (3.7%) prostatectomy specimens showed human epidermal receptor-2 immunostaining. The probability of positive chromogranin A expression in the PTEN inactivation group was 2.5-fold (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.6, p = 0.023) higher than in the nonPTEN inactivation group.

“Objective: Nonfunctional popliteal entrapment is due to <

“Objective: Nonfunctional popliteal entrapment is due to selleck chemicals llc embryologic maldevelopment within the popliteal fossa. Functional entrapment occurs in the apparent absence of an anatomic abnormality. Gastrocnemius hypertrophy has been associated with the latter. Both forms of entrapment may cause arterial injury and lower limb ischemia. This study

assessed the attachment of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle in healthy occluders and healthy nonoccluders.

Methods: provocative tests were used to identify, 58 nonoccluders and 16 occluders. Ten subjects from each group underwent magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of the popliteal fossa. The medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle attachment was assessed in the supracondylar, pericondylar, and intercondylar areas.

Results: In the occluder group, significantly more muscle was attached towards the femoral midline (supracondylar), around the lateral border of the medial condyle (pericondylar), and within the intercondylar fossa.

Conclusion: The more extensive midline position of the medial

head of the gastrocnemius in occluders is likely to be a normal embryological variation. Forceful contraction results in compression and occlusion of the adjacent popliteal artery. The clinical significance of these anatomic variations remains unclear. However, these new observations may provide insight for future analysis of the causes and natural history of functional compression and the potential progression to clinical entrapment. (J Vasc Surg 2008;48:1189-96.)”
“Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating Selleckchem LY2835219 polypeptide ( PACAP) and the proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived

peptide, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), exert anorexigenic activities. While a-MSH is known to inhibit food intake and stimulate catabolism via activation of the central melanocortin-receptor MC4-R, little is known regarding the mechanism by which PACAP inhibits food consumption. We have recently found that, in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, a high proportion of POMC neurons express PACAP receptors. This observation led us to investigate whether PACAP may inhibit food intake through a POMC-dependent mechanism. In mice deprived of food for 18 h, intracerebroventricular administration Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) of PACAP significantly reduced food intake after 30 min, and this effect was reversed by the PACAP antagonist PACAP6-38. In contrast, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide did not affect feeding behavior. Pretreatment with the MC3-R/MC4-R antagonist SHU9119 significantly reduced the effect of PACAP on food consumption. Central administration of PACAP induced c-Fos mRNA expression and increased the proportion of POMC neuron-expressing c-Fos mRNA in the arcuate nucleus. Furthermore, PACAP provoked an increase in POMC and MC4-R mRNA expression in the hypothalamus, while MC3-R mRNA level was not affected.

The consequences of adult stress exposure were more severe in rat

The consequences of adult stress exposure were more severe in rats were exposed to the same stressor as juveniles, indicated increased vulnerability.

The results suggest that juvenile stress has resounding effects in adulthood reflected in behavioral responses. The concomitant changes in BDNF and corticosterone levels may mediate the changes in neural plasticity and synaptic functioning underlying clinical manifestations

of PTSD. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Patients with schizophrenia may differ from healthy controls by having dysregulated physiological responses to stress. Our objective was to determine the extent to which cortisol. reaction can discriminate between controls and schizophrenia patients while controlling for symptom severity, personality, body mass index (BMI) and smoking.

Method: 30 chronic selleck kinase inhibitor schizophrenia patients and 30 matched controls underwent a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), consisting of public speaking and mental arithmetic. Heart rate, blood pressure, and salivary cortisol were measured Geneticin manufacturer repeatedly throughout

the TSST. In addition, participants completed the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-FFI), and were interviewed with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS).

Results: Both groups had a significant increase in heart rate and mean arterial pressure following the TSST. Results of a logistic regression suggests that patients can be discriminated from controls with a smaller change in cortisol between baseline and 15 min post-TSST, controlling for BMI and severity of positive symptoms. There was a trend for tower overall cortisol secretion in patients.

Conclusions: Despite demonstrable effects of the stressor Thalidomide on cardiac measures, schizophrenia

patients tend to have smaller acute cortisol reaction to psychosocial stress. The significance of this conclusion for vulnerability-stress models of schizophrenia is discussed. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The NEDD9 rs760678 polymorphism has been extensively investigated for association to Alzheimer’s disease (AD), however, results of different studies have been inconsistent. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship of NEDD9 rs760678 polymorphism and AD risk by using meta-analysis. Systematic searches of electronic databases Pubmed and Embase, as well as hand searching of the references of identified articles were performed. Statistical analyses were performed using software Revrnan 4.2 and STATA 11.0. A total of 4436 cases and 4420 controls in 11 case-control studies were included. The results indicated that the homozygote GG had a 13% decreased risk of AD, when compared with the C allele carriers (CC + CG) (OR = 0.87. 95%CI = 0.77-0.99, P = 0.04 for GG vs. CG + CC). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, significant decreased risk was associated with homozygote GG or G allele carriers in Caucasians (OR = 0.84, 95%CI = 0.

It is important to note that among

patients with asymptom

It is important to note that among

patients with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis, the omission of surgical treatment was the most important risk factor for late mortality.”
“The peripheral injection of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) into the mouse paw induces nociception mediated through activation of protein kinase C (PKC). In the present study, we examine the contribution of kinin B I receptor to PMA-induced nociception. Nociception was assessed Copanlisib after intraplantar injection of PMA or the B-1 receptor agonist des-Arg(9)-bradykinin in mice. Mechanisms of nociception were studied using the combination of knockout mice, selective drugs, and measurement of B-1 receptor mRNA and protein levels. Peripheral injection of PMA (50 pmol/paw) induced a nociceptive behaviour that was abolished by selective B I receptor

antagonist des-Arg9-Leu8-bradykinin or by the B-1 receptor gene deletion. Moreover, PMA treatment did not alter B-1 receptor rnRNA levels, but greatly increased B-1 receptor protein levels in the mouse paw. The injection of des-Arg9-bradykinin did not cause nociception STI571 purchase in naive mice, but produced marked nociception in animals previously treated with a low dose of PMA (0.5 nmol/paw). The co-treatment of PMA with selective PKC or protein synthesis inhibitors, but not with p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) or transcription inhibitors significantly reduced des-Arg(9)-bradykinin-induced nociception. On the other hand, the co-administration of selective PKC or p38 MAPK inhibitors, Niclosamide but not of protein synthesis or transcription inhibitors, reduced des-Arg9-bradykinin-induced nociception when evaluated in PMA pre-injected animals. These results suggest that the B 1 receptor exerts a critical role in the nociception caused by PKC activation in peripheral tissues. Since the PKC pathway is

downstream of several pro-inflammatory mediators, B, receptor stimulation appears to contribute to the acute inflammatory pain process. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Amphetamine (AMPH) is a potent dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) inhibitor that markedly increases extracellular DA levels. In addition to its actions as a DAT antagonist, acute AMPH exposure induces DAT losses from the plasma membrane, implicating transporter-specific membrane trafficking in amphetamine’s actions. Despite reports that AMPH modulates DAT surface expression, the trafficking mechanisms leading to this effect are currently not defined. We recently reported that DAT residues 587-596 play an integral role in constitutive and protein kinase C (PKC)-accelerated DAT internalization. In the current study, we tested whether the structural determinants required for PKC-stimulated DAT internalization are necessary for AMPH-induced DAT sequestration.

Genetic and environmental factors, including smoking, may be resp

Genetic and environmental factors, including smoking, may be responsible for phenotypic differences. Objective. To characterize HPS patients’ phenotype and to determine HPS risk and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in the first-degree relatives (FDRs). Patients and methods. Eight HPS patients were followed at our Gastroenterology Department (2008-2012).

The data included (1) macroscopic and histological analysis of polyps, (2) demographic information about patients and their families and (3) colonoscopy results of FDR that accepted a screening exam. Results. Six of the eight index cases (ICs) had family history of CRC. Of the 24 FDRs screened, 5 were diagnosed with HPS. In our study, HPS and CRC prevalence in FDR was 625 and 9 times higher than the risk of the general population. Polyps over 10 mm were preferentially located in proximal colon (p < 0.001). this website YH25448 Advanced polyps were larger (p < 0.001) than HP and more frequent in older patients (p = 0.0054). Nonsmokers had smaller polyps (p = 0.037) preferentially in the proximal colon (p = 0.04) and a lower age at HPS diagnosis. Patients with CRC family history manifest HPS at an earlier age and patients whose

relatives had CRC before 50 years had larger polyps (p = 0.0475). Smokers with CRC family history had larger polyps than nonsmokers (p = 0.048). Conclusion. Despite the small sample, the results reflect the phenotypic heterogeneity of HPS as well as the increased family risk of HPS and CRC. This study points out that CRC family history and smoking influence HPS expression.”
“Objective. Reliable indicators of the risk of lymph node metastasis (LNM) in superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (sESCC: intramucosal and submucosal invasive carcinoma) may contribute to assist optimal clinical decision-making for treating sESCC. In esophageal cancer, there is a

possibility of metastasis, even in sESCC, and careful evaluation is needed when making a pathological diagnosis. In this study, we objectively evaluated predictive factors of LNM. Materials and methods. A total of 110 consecutive sESCC cases were obtained. We evaluated candidate predictive Cyclooxygenase (COX) factors of LNM as follows: (1) maximum tumor diameter; (2) macroscopic type; (3) depth of tumor invasion; (4) histological differentiation; (5) infiltrative growth pattern; (6) tumor budding; (7) lymphatic invasion; (8) venous invasion and (9) lympho-vascular invasion (LVI). Both Elastica-Van Gieson staining (EVG) and immunohistochemistry (IHC: D2-40, CD31, CD34) were used to evaluate invasion into the lympho-vascular spaces. For statistical analyses, single and multiple logistic regression were performed. Results. LNM was observed in 37 cases (33.6%). LVI using EVG and IHC was the strongest independent predictor of LNM with an odds ratio of 12.01. Analysis of the relationship between LVI using EVG and IHC and LNM showed a negative predictive value of 94.6%.

Chronic ES alone did not result in increased survival of SGNs or

Chronic ES alone did not result in increased survival of SGNs or their peripheral processes. NT treatment alone resulted in greater PF-02341066 purchase SGN survival restricted to the upper basal cochlear region and an increased density of SGN peripheral processes. Importantly, chronic ES in combination with NTs provided significant SGN survival throughout a wider extent of the cochlea, in addition to an increased peripheral process density. Re-sprouting peripheral processes were observed in the scala media and scala tympani, raising the possibility of direct contact between peripheral processes and

a cochlear implant electrode array. We conclude that cell-based therapy is clinically viable and effective in promoting SGN survival for extended durations of cochlear implant use. These findings have important implications for the safe delivery of therapeutic drugs to the cochlea.”
“The Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), and the induction of an invasive cellular phenotype by KSHV following de novo infection is an important pathogenic component mediating tumor progression. The metastasis suppressor gene known as Nm23-H1 regulates tumor cell invasiveness, but whether KSHV itself regulates Nm23-H1 expression or subcellular localization,

and whether this impacts cell invasiveness, has not been established. We found that KSHV increases expression and nuclear translocation of Nm23-H1 and that nuclear translocation of Nm23-H1 is regulated by this website the KSHV-encoded latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA). Moreover, activation of the Ras-BRaf-MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signal transduction pathway, secretion of promigratory factors associated with this pathway, and cell invasiveness are dependent on KSHV regulation of Nm23-H1. Finally, induction of cytoplasmic overexpression of Nm23-H1 using a pharmacologic inhibitor of DNA methylation reduced KSHV-associated Ras-BRaf-MAPK pathway activation and suppressed KSHV-induced invasiveness. These data provide the first evidence

for KSHV regulation of Nm23-H1 as a mechanism for KSHV induction of an invasive cellular phenotype and support the potential utility of targeting Nm23-H1 as a therapeutic approach for the treatment of KS.”
“Males and females of virtually all species differ in how they respond to their environment. Because such differences Rebamipide exist in almost all biological realms, including disease patterns and therapeutic outcomes, they have evoked calls by various bodies to incorporate their assessment in research. Neurobehavioral indices pose special questions because, unlike outwardly visible markers, they are described by complex functional outcomes or subtle alterations in brain structure. These divergent responses arise because they are inscribed in the genome itself and then by endocrine mechanisms that govern sexual differentiation of the brain during development and operate throughout life.

Male Wistar rat pups were stressed by separation from their dams

Male Wistar rat pups were stressed by separation from their dams for 24 h at GNS-1480 cell line postnatal day (PND) 4, 9, or 18. The animals were tested for reinforcement of LTP at adolescence (9 weeks old) by exposing them to a 2-min swim-stress. Here, we show that maternal separation during (at PND9) but not at the beginning (at PND4) or after (at PND18) the stress-hyporesponsive-period of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis impairs emotional LTP-reinforcement in adolescent animals. Thus, this in vivo model allows the investigation

of physiological and pathophysiological emotional information processing at the cellular level in freely behaving adolescent animals. (C) 2008 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Animal displacement plays a central role in many ecological questions. It can be interpreted as a combination of components that only depend on the animal (for example a random PKC412 in vivo walk) and external influences given by the heterogeneity of the environment. Here we treat the case where animals switch between random walks in a homogeneous 2D environment and its 1D boundary, combined with a tendency for wall-following behaviour (thigmotactism) that is treated as a Markovian process. In the first part we use mesoscopic techniques to derive from these assumptions

a set of partial differential equations (PDE) with specific boundary conditions and parameters that are directly given by the individual displacement parameters.

All assumptions and approximations made during this derivation are rigorously validated for the case of exploratory behaviour of the ant Messor sanctus. These PDE predict that the stationary density ratio between the 2D (centre) and ID (border) environment only depends on the thigmotactic component, not on the size of the centre or border areas. In the second part we test this prediction with the same exploratory behaviour of M. sanctus, in particular when many ants move around simultaneously and may interact directly or indirectly. The prediction holds when there is a low degree of heterogeneity (simple square arena with straight borders), the collective behaviour is “”simply”" the sum of the individual behaviours. But this prediction breaks down when heterogeneity increases (obstacles inside the arena) due to the emergence Avelestat (AZD9668) of pheromone trails. Our, approach may be applied to study the effects of animal displacement in any environment where the animals are confronted with an alternation of 2D space and 1D borders as for example in fragmented landscapes. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke. In particular, the gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 contribute to disruption of the blood-brain barrier and hemorrhagic transformation following ischemic injury.

In the group of responders, nondownstaged patients showed satisfy

In the group of responders, nondownstaged patients showed satisfying survival (median buy INK1197 survival time 30 months, 5-year survival 30%). In the group of nonresponders, survival was unsatisfactory when a lobectomy was performed (median survival time 20 months, 5-year survival 13%) and poor in case of

pneumonectomy (15 months and 6%). Multivariate analysis found 4 factors significantly affecting survival: clinical response, nodal downstaging, number of chemotherapy cycles, and histopathologic response.

Conclusions: Surgery after chemotherapy could be effective for selected patients with N2 non-small cell lung cancer. Survival for responders is satisfactory, even in case of persistent N2 disease. Prognosis for nonresponders is disappointing. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2010;140:356-63)”
“Early adverse experiences resulting from maternal separation may lead to neuronal cell death and eventually cause memory

impairment. Maternal separation has been used to create a valid animal model of early life stress and a depression-like syndrome. The phosphodiesterase (PDE)-5 inhibitor, tadalafil (Cialis), is a widely prescribed agent for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the effects of tadalafil on apoptosis and cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of rat pups following maternal separation. Specifically, the https://www.selleckchem.com/products/MDV3100.html immobility time in the forced swim test was increased in the maternal-separated rat pups, and tadalafil treatment decreased the immobility time. The rat pups in the maternal separation group had deceased memory function compared to the rat pups in the maternal

care group, and tadalafil treatment Ribonuclease T1 increased memory function of the rat pups in the maternal separation group. Apoptotic cell death in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was significantly increased in the maternal-separated rat pups, and tadalafil treatment suppressed maternal separation-induced apoptosis. In contrast, cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus was significantly decreased in the maternal-separated rat pups, and taldalafil treatment increased cell proliferation. The present results suggest that tadalafil improves depressive symptoms and alleviates memory impairment by suppressing apoptotic neuronal cell death and enhancing cell proliferation in maternal-separated rat pups. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: This meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials evaluated effects of statins on postoperative atrial fibrillation risk after cardiac surgery.

Methods: Randomized, controlled trials evaluating statins in cardiac surgery were selected from MEDLINE (1996-August 2009), Cochrane CENTRAL Register, and manual review of references without any language restrictions. End points examined included postoperative atrial fibrillation, intensive care unit stay, and total hospital stay.