We report that while none of the gp41 cluster I antibodies studied were polyspecific, all three gp41 cluster II antibodies bound either to lipids or autoantigens, thus showing the propensity of cluster II antibodies to manifest polyreactivity. All cluster II gp41 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), including those that were lipid reactive, failed to bind to gp41 MPER peptide-lipid complexes. Cluster II antibodies bound strongly with nanomolar binding affinity (dissociation constant [K-d]) to oligomeric gp140 proteins, and thus, they recognize conformational epitopes on gp41 that are distinct from those of neutralizing gp41 antibodies.
These results demonstrate that lipid-reactive gp41 cluster II antibodies are nonneutralizing due to their inability to bind to the relevant
KPT-8602 cost neutralizing epitopes on gp41.”
“We have established that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection modulates the biology of target primary peripheral blood monocytes, allowing HCMV to use monocytes as “”vehicles”" for its systemic spread. HCMV infection of monocytes results in rapid induction of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase [PI(3) K] and NF-kappa B activities. Integrins, Akt inhibitor which are upstream of the PI(3) K and NF-kappa B pathways, were shown to be involved in HCMV binding to and entry into fibroblasts, suggesting that receptor ligand-mediated signaling following viral binding to integrins on monocytes could trigger the functional changes seen in infected monocytes. We now show that integrin engagement and the activation of the integrin/Src signaling pathway are essential for the induction of HCMV-infected monocyte motility. To investigate how integrin engagement by HCMV triggers monocyte motility, Rucaparib we examined the infected-monocyte transcriptome and found that the integrin/Src signaling pathway regulates the expression of paxillin, which is an important signal transducer in the regulation of actin rearrangement during cell adhesion and movement. Functionally, we observed that paxillin is activated via the integrin/Src signaling pathway and is
required for monocyte motility. Because motility is intimately connected to cellular cytoskeletal organization, a process that is also important in viral entry, we investigated the role paxillin regulation plays in the process of viral entry into monocytes. New results confirmed that HCMV entry into target monocytes was significantly reduced in cells deficient in paxillin expression or the integrin/Src/paxillin signaling pathway. From our data, HCMV-cell interactions emerge as an essential trigger for the cellular changes that allow for HCMV entry and hematogenous dissemination.”
“One proposed HIV vaccine strategy is to induce Gag-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses that can corner the virus, through fitness cost of viral escape and unavailability of compensatory mutations.