d-AMPH and m-AMPH increased the crossing and rearing behaviors T

d-AMPH and m-AMPH increased the crossing and rearing behaviors. The numbers of visits to the center were increased by d-AMPH and m-AMPH only at 2 mg/kg. Likewise, at a high dose (2

mg/kg), the injection of m-AMPH increased the amount of sniffing. The AMPHs significantly decreased the activities Evofosfamide cell line of Krebs cycle enzymes (citrate synthase and succinate dehydrogenase) and mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes (I-IV); nevertheless, this effect varied depending on the brain region evaluated. In summary, this study demonstrated that at high doses, m-AMPH, increased stereotyped (sniffing) behavior in rats, but d-AMPH did not. However, this study shows that d-AMPH and m-AMPH seem to have similar effects on the brains energetic metabolism. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

“The possible association in schizophrenia between frontal abnormalities, such as hypofrontality and frontal grey matter (GM) deficits, and neuropsychological deficits is not yet well defined. Our objective was to study such an association and to clarify the cognitive relevance of metabolic OSI-906 ic50 and anatomical variability across schizophrenia patients. To do so, we studied dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPF) metabolism during an attention test using fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography and DLPF structure with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 22 schizophrenia patients 19 neuroleptic-naive (NN) first episodes]. These patients also underwent a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests aimed at evaluating global intelligence and the proposed domains of cognitive alteration in schizophrenia, i.e., attention, visual and verbal learning and memory, working memory, problem solving and processing Chloroambucil speed. The metabolic activity in the right DLPF region was significantly and directly related to processing speed, and a measure of structural deficit in the same area was directly related to working memory scores. In the NN group studied alone, these

associations were replicated. We may conclude that hypofrontality during cognitive activation, and the degree of DLPF structural deficit may be associated to a particular profile of cognitive deficit, including lower processing speed and working memory capacity. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Two lick suppression experiments using rats were conducted to determine whether extinction of a punctate excitor in a particular context would result in that context becoming a conditioned inhibitor, as defined by passing both summation and retardation tests. The role of extinction trial spacing was investigated as a possible determinant of whether the extinction context would become inhibitory.

Results: Analysis of both procedures showed identical use of endo

Results: Analysis of both procedures showed identical use of endovascular tools, similar access strategy, and a high degree of similarity between the angiography images. The total procedure time (24.04 vs 60.44 minutes), fluoroscopy time (11.19 vs 21.04 minutes), and cannulation of the common carotid artery (1.35 vs 9.34) took considerably longer in reality. An extensive questionnaire revealed that all team members found that the rehearsal increased the subjective sense of teamwork (4/5), communication (4/5), and patient safety (4/5).

Conclusion: A VR

procedure rehearsal is a practical and feasible preparatory tool for CAS and shows a high correlation with the real procedure. It has the potential to enhance the technical, nontechnical, and team performance. Further research is needed to evaluate if this technology can lead to improved outcomes for patients. BVD-523 concentration (J Vasc Surg 2010;52:1700-5.)”
“BACKGROUND: The availability of markers able to provide an early insight related to prognostic and functional outcome of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) are limited.

OBJECTIVE: The relationship of clinical outcome with CSF neuron-specific enolase (NSE), S100B and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) levels in patients with severe TBI was investigated.

METHODS: Twenty patients with severe TBI (7 days at unit care) and controls

were studied. Patients were grouped according to the outcome: PD-0332991 clinical trial (1) nonsurvival (n = 5): patients who died; (2) survival A (n = 15): CSF sampled between 1st and 3rd day from patients who survived after hospital admission; and (3) survival B (n = 7): CSF sampled between 4th and 7th day from patients who survived after hospital admission and were maintained with intraventricular catheter up to 7 days.

RESULTS: Up to 3 days, S100B and NSE levels (ng/mL) were significantly elevated in the nonsurvival compared

with survival A group (S100: 12.45 +/- 5.46 vs 5.64 +/- 3.36; NSE: 313.20 +/- Afatinib 45.51 vs 107.80 +/- 112.10). GFAP levels did not differ between groups. In the survival B group S100B, GFAP, and NSE levels were still elevated compared with control (4.59 +/- 2.19, 2.48 +/- 2.55, and 89.80 +/- 131.10, respectively). To compare S100B and NSE for the prediction of nonsurvival and survival patients we performed receiver operating characteristic curves. At admission, CSF NSE level predicts brain death more accurately than S100B.

CONCLUSION: Early elevations (up to 3 days) of S100B and NSE secondary to severe TBI predict deterioration to brain death. However, this feature was more prominently associated with NSE than S100B.”
“Improvements in endovascular technology and techniques have allowed us to treat patients in ways we never thought possible.

2011 54; published online 27 April 2011″
“Although stretches

2011.54; published online 27 April 2011″
“Although stretches of serine and threonine are sometimes sites for O-linked carbohydrate attachment, specific sequence and structural determinants for O-linked attachment remain ill defined. The gp120 envelope protein of SIVmac239 contains a serine-threonine-rich stretch

of amino acids at www.selleckchem.com/products/sorafenib.html positions 128 to 139. Here we show that lectin protein from jackfruit seed (jacalin), which binds to non-and monosialylated core 1 O-linked carbohydrate, potently inhibited the replication of SIVmac239. Selection of a jacalin-resistant SIVmac239 variant population resulted in virus with specific substitutions within amino acids 128 to 139. Cloned simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) variants with substitutions in the 128-to-139 region had infectivities equivalent to, or within 1 log unit of, that of SIVmac239 and were Peptide 17 datasheet resistant to the inhibitory effects of jacalin. Characterization of the SIVmac239 gp120 O-linked glycome showed the presence of core 1 and core 2 O-linked carbohydrate; a 128-to-139-substituted variant gp120 from jacalin-resistant SIV lacked O-linked carbohydrate. Unlike that of SIVmac239, the replication of HIV-1 strain NL4-3 was resistant to inhibition by jacalin. Purified gp120s from four SIVmac and SIVsm strains bound jacalin strongly in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, while nine different HIV-1 gp120s, two SIVcpz gp120s, and 128-to-139-substituted SIVmac239

gp120 did not bind jacalin. The ability or inability to bind jacalin thus correlated with the presence of the serine-threonine-rich stretch in the SIVmac and SIVsm gp120s and the absence of such stretches in the SIVcpz and HIV-1

gp120s. Consistent with sequence predictions, two HIV-2 gp120s bound jacalin, while one did not. These data demonstrate the presence of non-and monosialylated core 1 O-linked carbohydrate on the gp120s of SIVmac and SIVsm and the lack of these modifications on HIV-1 and SIVcpz gp120s.”
“Tardive dyskinesia (TD) rates with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are considered to be low relative to first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs), even in the particularly vulnerable elderly population. However, risk estimates are unavailable for patients naive to FGAs. Therefore, we aimed Olopatadine to determine the TD incidence in particularly vulnerable, antipsychotic-naive elderly patients treated with the SGA risperidone or olanzapine. The present work describes a prospective inception cohort study of antipsychotic-naive elderly patients aged >= 55 years identified at New York Metropolitan area in-patient and out-patient geriatric psychiatry facilities and nursing homes at the time of risperidone or olanzapine initiation. At baseline, 4 weeks, and at quarterly periods, patients underwent assessments of medical and medication history, abnormal involuntary movements, and extra-pyramidal signs. TD was classified using Schooler-Kane criteria. Included in the analyses were 207 subjects (age: 79.8 years, 70.0% female, 86.

We assessed the influence of EE on the ability of heroin to (1) i

We assessed the influence of EE on the ability of heroin to (1) induce conditioned place preferences, (2) induce behavioral sensitization, (3) increase dopamine levels

in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), and (4) increase expression of the immediate early gene zif-268 in the striatum.

Conditioned place preference but not behavioral sensitization was reduced in EE mice compared to SE mice. Heroin induced similar increases in dopamine levels and in the expression of zif-268 in the NAc of EE and SE mice.

The rewarding effects of heroin are blunted by EE and appear to be, at least in part, independent 3-MA manufacturer from activation of the mesolimbic system.”
“Inflammation contributes to the pathophysiology of depression.

Chemokine-like receptor-1 (CMKLR1) plays an important role both in the development of inflammation and in the mechanism of antidepressant effect of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (Omega-3 PUFAs), AZD1152 cost ecosapeatanolicacid (EPA). The present study was to investigate the modification of CMKLR1 in chronic restraint stress (CRS) rats. CMKLR1 was examined in different brain region from CRS rats by using western blot and quantitative real-time PCR. The CMKLR1 expression in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and cerebellum was determined on 3, 7, 10 and 21 days of repeated restraint stress and was compared to controls. The results showed that the protein and mRNA level of CMKLR1 in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were significantly increased on day 3 and then decreased on day 7, 10 and 21 in the CRS rats. The protein and mRNA level of CMKLR1 in cerebellum was similar to that of control group throughout the whole experiment. Changed expression of brain CMKLR1 is suggested to be involved in the mechanism of depression.

(c) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Pleiotropy is the well-established phenomenon of a single gene affecting multiple traits. It has long played a central role in theoretical, experimental, and clinical research in genetics, development, molecular biology, evolution, and medicine. In recent years, genomic Selleckchem Ixazomib techniques have brought data to bear on fundamental questions about the nature and extent of pleiotropy. However, these efforts are plagued by conceptual difficulties derived from disparate meanings and interpretations of pleiotropy. Here, we describe distinct uses of the pleiotropy concept and explain the pitfalls associated with applying empirical data to them. We conclude that, for any question about the nature or extent of pleiotropy, the appropriate answer is always ‘What do you mean?’.”
“The field of research regarding the effects of habitual caffeine use is immense and frequently utilizes self-report measures of caffeine use. However, various self-report measures have different methodologies, and the accuracy of these different methods has not been compared.

One obvious finding based on proteomic data was that the amounts

One obvious finding based on proteomic data was that the amounts of several

extracellular modulators of Wnt and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling changed during adipogenesis. The expressions of secreted frizzled-related proteins, dickkopf-related proteins, and latent TGF-beta-binding proteins were found to be altered during adipogenesis, which suggests that they participate in the fine regulation of Wnt and TGF-beta signaling. This study provides useful tools and important clues regarding the roles of secretory factors during adipogenic differentiation, and provides information related to obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases.”
“Mature angiosperm

seeds consist of an Enzalutamide in vitro embryo surrounded MM-102 molecular weight by the endosperm and the testa. The endosperm cap that covers the radicle plays a regulatory role during germination and is a major target of abscisic acidinduced inhibition of germination. Cress (Lepidium sativum) is a close relative of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). Cress seeds offer the unique possibility of performing tissue-specific proteomics due to their larger size while benefiting the genomic tools available for Arabidopsis. This work provides the first description of endosperm cap proteomics during seed germination. An analysis of the proteome of the cress endosperm cap at key stages during germination and after

radicle protrusion in the presence and absence of abscisic acid led to the identification of 144 proteins, which were clustered by the changes in their abundances and categorized by function. Proteins with a function in energy production, protein stability and stress response were overrepresented among the identified endosperm cap proteins. This strongly suggests that the cress endosperm cap is not a storage tissue as the cereal endosperm but a metabolically very active tissue regulating the rate of radicle protrusion.”
“To gain those more insights into the translational and PTM that occur in rat offspring exposed to alcohol in utero, 2-D PAGE with total, phospho- and glycoprotein staining and MALDI-MS/MS and database searching were conducted. The results, based on fold-change expression, revealed a down-regulation of total protein expression by prenatal alcohol exposure in 7-day-old and 3-month-old rats. There was an up-regulation of protein phosphorylation but a down-regulation of glycosylation by prenatal alcohol exposure in both age groups. Of 31. protein spots examined per group, differentially expressed proteins were identified as ferritin light chain, aldo-keto reductase, tumor rejection antigen gp96, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, and gamma-actin.

The model also provides a mechanism at the cellular level for a c

The model also provides a mechanism at the cellular level for a constant value of the Weber fraction (the ratio of the threshold sensitivity to a stimulus and the magnitude of that stimulus) for the magnetic sense but requires a separate gain control mechanism for modulation of sensitivity over a range of background fields. If magnetic field detection and encoding works as proposed in the Selleckchem AZD2014 model, the magnetoreceptor system may also be able to reconstruct the magnetic field vector using information about the vertical and horizontal

axes from the eyes, gravity detectors, or both. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“During disease, infection, or trauma, the cytokine tumor necrosis factor(alpha) (TNF alpha) causes fever, fatigue, malaise, allodynia, anorexia, gastric stasis associated with nausea,

and emesis via interactions with the central nervous system. Our studies have focused on how TNF alpha produces a profound gastric stasis by acting on vago-vagal reflex circuits in the brainstem. Sensory elements of this circuit (i.e., nucleus of the solitary tract [NST] and area postrema) are activated by TNF alpha. In response, the efferent elements (i.e., dorsal motor neurons of the vagus) cause gastroinhibition via their action on the gastric enteric plexus. We find that TNF alpha presynaptically modulates the release of glutamate from primary vagal afferents to the NST and can amplify vagal afferent responsiveness by sensitizing presynaptic ARRY-438162 nmr intracellular calcium-release mechanisms. The constitutive presence of TNF alpha receptors on these afferents and their ability to amplify afferent signals may explain how TNF alpha can completely disrupt O-methylated flavonoid autonomic control of the gut.”
“Peroxisome proliferator activated

receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) regulates fatty acid beta-oxidation (FAO) and plays a central role in the metabolic and energetic homeostasis of striated muscles. The thermodynamic consequences of the absence of PPAR alpha were investigated in diaphragm muscle of PPAR alpha knockout mice (KO). Statistical mechanics provides a powerful tool for determining entropy production, which quantifies irreversible chemical processes generated by myosin molecular motors and which is the product of thermodynamic force A/T (chemical affinity A and temperature 7) and thermodynamic flow (myosin crossbridge (CB) cycle velocity nu). The behavior of both wild type (WT) and KO diaphragm was shown to be near-equilibrium and in a stationary state, but KO was farther from equilibrium than WT. In KO diaphragm, a substantial decrease in contractile function was associated with an increase in both A/T and nu and with profound histological injuries such as contraction band necrosis. There were no changes in PPAR delta and gamma expression levels or myosin heavy chain (MHC) patterns.

Patients with delusions and patients with depression both showed

Patients with delusions and patients with depression both showed decreased levels of explicit,

but normal levels of implicit GSK1904529A nmr self-esteem when compared to healthy controls. The direct comparison of levels of explicit and implicit self-esteem within each group revealed that healthy controls had higher explicit than implicit self-esteem, while the converse pattern was found for depressed controls. No discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem was found for acute deluded or remitted patients with schizophrenia. Although these findings do not support the hypothesis that delusions serve to enhance self-esteem, they underline the relevance of low self-esteem in patients with persecutory delusions and point to the necessity of enhancing self-esteem in therapy. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Revascularization of chronic wounds and ischemic tissue is attenuated by endothelial dysfunction and the inability of angiogenic factors to stimulate angiogenesis. We recently showed that TP508, a nonproteolytic thrombin peptide, increases perfusion and NO-dependent vasodilation in hearts with chronic ischemia and stimulates NO production by endothelial cells. In this study, we investigated systemic in vivo effects of TP508 on VEGF-stimulated angiogenesis

in vitro using aortic PLEK2 explants in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Mice were injected with saline or TP508 and 24 h later aortas were removed and cultured to quantify endothelial sprouting. TP508 injection increased VX-809 endothelial sprouting and potentiated the in vitro response to VEGF. Exposure of control explants to hypoxia inhibited basal and VEGF-stimulated endothelial cell sprouting. This effect of hypoxia was significantly prevented by TP508 injection. Thus, TP508 systemic administration increases responsiveness of aortic endothelial cells to VEGF and diminishes the effect of chronic hypoxia on endothelial cell sprouting. Studies using human endothelial cells in culture suggest

that protective effects of TP508 during hypoxia may involve stimulation of endothelial cell NO production. These data suggest potential clinical benefit of using a combination of systemic TP508 and local VEGF as a therapy for revascularization of ischemic tissue. Copyright (C) 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Influenza A (H7N9) emerged earlier this year as a health threat in China. Efforts to develop a vaccine are under way. This letter presents initial phase 1 clinical data on the safety and immunogenicity of a candidate vaccine.To the Editor: Avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) viruses emerged as human pathogens in China in 2013 and have caused 137 cases and 45 deaths to date.

De-activation of the hippocampus caused impairments in a PAL task

De-activation of the hippocampus caused impairments in a PAL task. The selective nature of this effect (only one of the two tasks was impaired), suggests the effect is specific to cognition and cannot be attributed to gross impairments (changes in visual learning). The pattern of results suggests that rodent PAL may be suitable as a translational model of PAL in humans.”
“Mosquito-borne diseases such ��-Nicotinamide clinical trial as malaria and dengue fever pose a major health problem through much of the world. One approach to disease prevention involves the use of selfish genetic

elements to drive disease-refractory genes into wild mosquito populations. Recently engineered synthetic drive systems have provided encouragement for this strategy; but at the same time have been greeted with caution over the concern that transgenes may spread into countries PF-01367338 solubility dmso and communities without: their consent. Consequently, there is also interest in gene drive systems that, while strong enough to bring about local population replacement, are unable to establish themselves beyond a partially isolated release site, at least during the testing phase. Here, we develop simple deterministic and stochastic models to compare the confinement properties of a variety of gene drive

systems. Our results highlight several systems with desirable features for confinement-a high migration rate required to become established in neighboring populations, and low-frequency persistence in neighboring populations for moderate migration rates. Single-allele underdominance and single-locus engineered underdominance have the strongest confinement properties, but are difficult to engineer and require a high introduction frequency, respectively. Toxin-antidote systems such as Semele. Merea and two-locus engineered underdominance show promising confinement properties and require lower introduction frequencies. Killer-rescue is self-limiting in time, but is able to disperse to significant levels in neighboring populations. We discuss the significance of these

results in the context of Ureohydrolase a phased release of transgenic mosquitoes, and the need for characterization of local ecology prior to a release. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an approved antiepileptic and antidepressant treatment, which has recently shown promise as a therapy for drug-resistant primary headaches. Specific neurobiological mechanisms underlying its anticephalgic action are not elucidated, partly because of the deficiency of research-related findings. The spinal trigeminal nucleus (STN) plays a prominent role in pathophysiology of headaches by modulating pain transmission from intracranial structures to higher centers of the brain. To determine whether vagal stimulation may affect trigeminovascular nociception, we investigated the effects of VNS on the STN neuronal activity in the animal model of headache.

The influence of Peclet number and the non-dimensional rate of co

The influence of Peclet number and the non-dimensional rate of consumption of oxygen in tissue, as well as the amplitude of oscillations, are fully characterised. We conclude by considering the likely implications of these results in the context of oxygen transport to tissue. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: Putaminal convection-enhanced

delivery (CED) of an adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) vector, containing the human aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (hAADC) gene for the treatment of Parkinson disease (PD), has completed a phase I clinical trial.

OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively analyze magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) data from the phase I trial, correlate those data with similar nonhuman primate (NHP) PF-02341066 in vivo data, and present how such information may improve future PD gene therapy trials in preparation for the initiation of the phase II trial.

METHODS: Ten patients with PD had been treated with see more bilateral MRI-guided putaminal infusions of AAV2-hAADC. MRI and PET scans were obtained at baseline (before vector administration) and at various intervals after treatment. Three normal adult NHPs received similar infusions into the thalamus. Imaging studies for both groups are presented,

as well as hAADC immunohistochemistry for the NHPs.

RESULTS: Early post-CED MRI confirmed the stereotactic targeting accuracy and revealed T2 hyperintensity around the distal cannula tracts, best seen within 4 hours of surgery. Coregistration of post-CED MRI

and PET scans revealed increased PET uptake at the sites of T2 hyperintensity. Similar Dimethyl sulfoxide T2 hyperintensities in NHP MRI correlated with hAADC immunohistochemistry.

CONCLUSION: Our analysis confirms the correct targeting of the CED cannula tracts within the target human putamen. Coregistration of MRI and PET confirms colocalization of T2 hyperintensities and increased PET uptake around the distal cannula tracts. Because PET uptake closely correlates with hAADC transgene expression and NHP data confirm this relationship between T2 hyperintensity and hAADC immunohistochemistry, we believe that T2-weighted MRI allows visualization of a significant part of the distribution volume of the hAADC gene therapy. Recommendations for future protocols based on these data are presented.”
“Complex cellular networks regulate metabolism, environmental adaptation, and phenotypic changes in biological systems. Among the elements forming regulatory networks in bacteria are regulatory proteins such as transcription factors, which respond to exogenous and endogenous conditions. To perceive their surroundings, bacteria have evolved sensory regulatory systems of two-components. The archetype of these systems is made up of two proteins a signal sensor and a response regulator whose genes are usually located together in a single transcription unit. These units switch transcriptional programs in response to environmental conditions.

With the recent advancement in technology, it is expected that so

With the recent advancement in technology, it is expected that some of the difficulties in membrane proteomics will be overcome, yielding new data on membrane proteins.”
“The objective

of this study was to explore changes in hyaluronan levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a spinal cord compression model, to investigate whether hyaluronan tetrasaccharide was involved in this process, and to test the effects of hyaluronan tetrasaccharide https://www.selleckchem.com/products/pf-04929113.html on neuron and oligodendrocyte repair. We developed a chronic spinal cord compression model with various sizes of polymer sheets (1.5 x 0.7 x 0.3 mm(3); 5 x 1.5 x 0.7 mm(3)) that were implanted microsurgically underneath the C5-6 laminae. The rats were divided into three groups: a sham group, a mildly compressed (MC) group, and a widely compressed (WC) group. Locomotor functional evaluations revealed that the behavioral function of the MC and WC groups dropped to their lowest level from the fourth to fifth week and gradually recovered thereafter. The hyaluronan levels in the CSF gradually increased after spinal cord compression. Furthermore, hyaluronan tetrasaccharide

was involved in the hyaluronan change. In addition, we found that nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) and cellular inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein 2 (c-IAP(2)) were co-expressed in neurons and oligodendrocytes, learn more and caspase-3 expression gradually decreased in the compression model. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression was upregulated in astrocytes at the fourth week post-compression. Hyaluronan tetrasaccharide (HA(4)) induced NF-kappa B and c-IAP(2) to suppress the H2O2-induced apoptosis in primary neuronal cultures and increased BDNF and VEGF expression in astrocytic cultures in vitro. These findings suggest that HA(4) selleck kinase inhibitor in the CSF may associate with behavioral recovery by increasing the levels of NF-kappa B, c-IAP(2), and neurotrophic factors after chronic spinal cord compression.

(c) 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“This review links practice, funding, and evidence for interventions for mental health and psychosocial wellbeing in humanitarian settings. We studied practice by reviewing reports of mental health and psychosocial support activities (2007-10); funding by analysis of the financial tracking service and the creditor reporting system (2007-09); and interventions by systematic review and meta-analysis. In 160 reports, the five most commonly reported activities were basic counselling for individuals (39%); facilitation of community support of vulnerable individuals (23%); provision of child-friendly spaces (21%); support of community-initiated social support (21%); and basic counselling for groups and families (20%). Most interventions took place and were funded outside national mental health and protection systems.