61 mmol/L, P < 0.001) and 13% (−0.34 mmol/L, P = 0.048) compared with placebo ( Fig. 1). HDL cholesterol concentrations increased by 11% (0.13 mmol/L, P = 0.013) after fenofibrate treatment, whereas fish oil tended to increase Ipilimumab mouse HDL cholesterol (P = 0.076) compared to placebo.
Compared with fenofibrate treatment, HDL cholesterol (P = 0.737) and triglyceride concentrations (P = 0.133) were comparable after fish oil intake, but total cholesterol (0.91 mmol/L, P < 0.001) and LDL cholesterol (0.78 mmol/L, P < 0.001) were increased. Concentrations of free fatty acids were not affected by either treatment. Fish oil tended to raise fasting plasma glucose concentrations compared to placebo (0.24 mmol/L, P = 0.056) and fenofibrate treatment had no effect (P = 0.721) compared to placebo.
At the end of the intervention period, glucose concentrations between fish oil and fenofibrate treatment (P = 0.250) did not differ. Compared to placebo, fenofibrate significantly reduced total VLDL particle numbers (−23 nmol/L, P = 0.001), in particular large (−2.4 nmol/L, P = 0.003) and medium VLDL particles (−14 nmol/L, P = 0.001). Fish oil reduced the number of large VLDL particles (−3.0 nmol/L, P < 0.001), although the total number of VLDL particles was not affected. It increased however the total number of LDL particles (224 nmol/L, P = 0.005), but decreased the number of IDL particles (−28 nmol/L,
P = 0.016). GSK126 datasheet For HDL, fenofibrate decreased HDL size (−0.11 nm, P = 0.025) and increased the number of medium HDL Interleukin-3 receptor particles (3.1 μmol/L, P = 0.011). Fish oil had no overall effect on HDL size, but increased the number large HDL particles (1.5 μmol/L). Fish oil treatment resulted in higher particle numbers of total VLDL (16 nmol/L, P = 0.02), medium VLDL (13 nmol/L, P = 0.002), total LDL (334 nmol/L, P < 0.001), large LDL (132 nmol/L, P = 0.006) and small LDL (215 nmol/L, P = 0.043) compared to fenofibrate treatment ( Table 3). The number of large HDL particles and HDL size were larger (1.8 nmol/L, P = 0.004 and 0.14 nm, P = 0.004, respectively). The number of medium HDL particles was smaller after fish oil treatment compared to fenofibrate treatment (−4.8 nmol/L, P < 0.001). Concentrations of TNFR1, TNFR2 hsCRP, TNFα, IL6, sICAM1 and sVCAM1 did not differ between the treatments (Table 4). Compared with placebo, the chemokine MCP1, however, increased upon fenofibrate treatment (28 ng/mL, P = 0.034), but remained unaffected after fish oil treatment (P = 0.204) ( Table 4). Further, fenofibrate significantly lowered sE-selectin concentrations compared to both placebo (−4.1 ng/mL, P = 0.034) and fish oil (−5.7 ng/mL, P = 0.014), whereas fish oil treatment had no effect compared to placebo (P = 0.932). Fish oil and micronized fenofibrate were well tolerated by all subjects.