By measuring the SP of tris (8-hydroxyquinolinato)


By measuring the SP of tris (8-hydroxyquinolinato)

aluminum(III) (Alq3) thin films, we found that the S/B fiber probes INCB018424 supplier have large negative values in the KFM transfer function. Near-field photoexcitation was performed on Alq3 thin films through the S/B fiber probes, and the spatial pattern of photoinduced reduction in SP was visualized by KFM measurement with the same probe. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3373430]“
“Purpose: To explore the structure and content of pre-planned consultations as part of the care and treatment of patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer.

Methods: The study was based on 50 transcripts of audio-recorded pre-planned consultations between seven patients and 36 healthcare professionals from the time of diagnosis, pre-operative consultation, discharge consultation and pathology report in a colorectal unit.

Results: The spread of consultation time between professions was considerable. Total mean consultation time for patients during the care process (7 consultations/patient) SNS-032 cell line was 111 mm (range 83-191). The mean consultation time for surgeons was 18 min (7-40), anaesthesiologists 12 min (5-18) and nurses 14 min (5-49). Patients took up 40% of the word space, healthcare professionals used 59% and significant others 1%. Word space changed

in such a way that the patient became more active towards the final consultation. Neither during the diagnosis consultation nor during the pre-operative consultation did the patients meet the operating surgeon.

Six major subjects emerged: general Selleckchem BI2536 health, diagnosis, surgical procedure, pre-operative preparations, recovery and treatment and follow-up.

Conclusions: There is a need for clearer structure in the consultations. Most consultations lacked a clear introduction to the subject of the conversation. The study makes it possible to develop methods and structure for supporting conversations in which the patient is given space to help with the difficult issues present

after undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer. The study also contributes to providing knowledge of how to organise surgical consultations in order to optimise person-centeredness, teamwork and clinical efficiency. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“This study confirms the structural changes of nylon 6 fibers using lipase by measuring the dyeability, hydrophilicity, chemical changes, and fastness properties. For this purpose, nylon 6 fabrics were first treated separately with different concentrations of lipase enzyme. The dyeing process was then carried out on the treated fabrics with two disperse and acid dyes. A UV-vis spectrophotometer was used for determination of dyebath exhaustion. Acid and disperse dyes showed higher dyebath exhaustion on the enzyme treated samples compared to raw material.

Peripheral plasma concentrations of chemotherapeutic agents were

Peripheral plasma concentrations of chemotherapeutic agents were determined at 1 hour and 72 hours after TACE by high-performance liquid chromatography in 53 patients. HCC were divided into three types namely single nodule (< 5 cm), multiple nodules (all < 5 cm), and main nodule measuring 5 cm or more. Forty-four patients (83%) showed detectable chemotherapeutic concentrations within 72 hours after TACE. Patients with single nodular-type HCC had lower incidence of detectable plasma chemotherapeutic agents after TACE than the other two groups (all p < 0.05). The injected doses of lipiodol, epirubicin, and mitomycin C were lower

in patients without detection than in patients Selleckchem TH-302 with detectable chemotherapeutic agents (all p < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression showed that tumor type and injected dose of lipiodol were two independent risk factors for the leakage of mitomycin C at 1 hour after TACE (all p <

0.05), and the injected dose of mitomycin C was the risk factor for the leakage of epirubicin at 1 hour after TACE (p < 0.05). In conclusion, multiple 3-deazaneplanocin A mouse nodular type and large nodule measuring 5 cm or more have a risk of leakage of mitomycin C after TACE. Injected dose of lipiodol and mitomycin C as risk factor for the leakage of mitomycin C and epirubicin respectively may be because of competition of their injected volume within the limited space of target. Copyright (C) 2011, Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.”
“Calcifications in mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the salivary glands are considered to be exceptionally rare and are often associated with high-grade tumors. This study reviewed 30 cases of MECs to access the frequency of calcifications and the clinical profile of

the patients and histopathologic aspects of the tumors. In total, 6 cases of calcifications (20%) were identified. Five patients were women and 1 was a man, patients’ ages ranged from 22 to 69 years selleck chemical old, and calcifications were found in conventional and clear cell-type MECs. Areas of calcification showed positivity for periodic acid-Schiff and mucicarmine, supporting the hypothesis that they originate from the precipitation of mucous secretion. The presence of calcifications in MECs was independent of the histologic grade of the tumors and the histopathologic variants. Calcifications in salivary MECs may not be as rare as previously mentioned in the literature and may be not associated with high-grade tumors. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2011;111:482-485)”
“This study aims to determine the accuracy of digital rectal examination (DRE) to detect anal sphincter defects when compared to endoanal ultrasound (US) in women with fecal incontinence (FI).

Therefore, a FeTFT has the scaling merit of fast operation speed

Therefore, a FeTFT has the scaling merit of fast operation speed. (C) 2011 American CH5183284 Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3651098]“

nephropathy induced by urine reflux due to uroliths, prostatic hypertrophy and other disorders will result in renal interstitial fibrosis and inflammation. Because of Hypericum perforatums (HP) anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, the clinical usage of this drug in renal function has been studied. We divided 30 Sprague-Dawley rats randomly into 5 groups: sham group (Sham), untreated unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) group, vitamin E treated (50 IU/kg) UUO group, HP 30 and 60 treated (30 and 60 mg/kg) UUO groups. All of the chemicals were administrated 7 days before and after operation. At 7 days after buy GSK1904529A UUO, blood samples were collected and left kidney were dissected and Haematoxylin and Eosin (HE) and Masson staining were used to study the dynamic histological changes. Low dose of HP similar to vitamin E alleviated the renal interstitial fibrosis, tubular cell degeneration, inflammatory cell infiltration and glomerular damage (p<0.01) but high dose of HP

increased injuries (p<0.05). We provide for the first time evidence that HP extract in obstructed kidney has different effects, such that in low dose it can be affected as a renoprotective agent, but in high dose, it can be affected as an inflammation triggering substance. The demonstration of

exact mechanism (s) of opposite effect of HP extracts needs more cellular and molecular investigations.”
“Composites of ultrafine polyhedral oligomeric octaphenyl silsesquioxane (OPS) and polycarbonate (PC) were prepared by melt blending. The mechanical and thermal properties of the composites were characterized by tensile and flexural tests, impact test, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Rheological properties of these melts were tested by torque rheometer. The flame retardancy of the composites was tested by limiting oxygen index (LOI), the vertical burning (UL-94), and cone calorimeter test. The char residue was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and ATR-FTIR spectrum. Furthermore, the dispersion of OPS particles MAPK Inhibitor Library in the PC matrix was evidenced by SEM. The results indicate that the glass transition temperatures (Tg) and torque of the composites decrease with increasing OPS loading. The onset decomposition temperatures of composites are lower than that of PC. The LOI value and UL-94 rating of the PC/OPS composites increase with increasing loading of OPS. When OPS loading reaches 6 wt %, the LOI value is 33.8%, UL-94 (1.6 mm) V-0 rating is obtained, and peak heat release rate (PHRR) decreases from 570 to 292 kJ m-2. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

The principles and guidelines at our center

are driven by

The principles and guidelines at our center

are driven by the potential benefit of the SPK transplant needing to outweigh the increased morbidity of the surgical procedure and the use of lifelong immunosuppression. Results from long-term studies demonstrating improved patient survival suggest that the treatment of choice for an appropriate type 1 diabetic recipient is an SPK transplant.”
“Background: Statistical process control (SPC), an industrial sphere initiative, has recently been applied in health care and public health surveillance. SPC methods assume HDAC inhibitor independent observations and process autocorrelation has been associated with increase in false alarm frequency.

Methods: Monthly mean raw mortality (at hospital discharge) time series, 1995-2009, at the individual Intensive Care unit (ICU) level, were generated from the Australia and New Zealand Intensive Care Society adult patient database. Evidence for series (i) autocorrelation and seasonality was demonstrated using

(partial)-autocorrelation ((P) ACF) function displays and classical series decomposition and (ii) “”in-control”" status was sought using risk-adjusted (RA) exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control limits (3 sigma). Risk adjustment was achieved using a random coefficient (intercept as ICU site and slope as APACHE III score) logistic regression model, generating an expected mortality series. Application of time-series to an exemplar complete ICU series (1995-(end) 2009) was via Box-Jenkins methodology: autoregressive selleck chemicals llc moving average (ARMA) and (G) ARCH ((Generalised) Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity) models, the latter addressing volatility of the series variance.

Results: The overall data set, 1995-2009, consisted

of 491324 records from 137 ICU sites; average raw mortality was 14.07%; average(SD) raw and expected mortalities ranged from 0.012(0.113) and 0.013(0.045) to 0.296(0.457) and 0.278 (0.247) respectively. For the raw mortality series: 71 sites had continuous data for assessment up to or beyond lag(40) and 35% had autocorrelation through to lag40; and of 36 sites with continuous data for >= 72 months, all demonstrated marked seasonality. Similar numbers and percentages were seen with the expected series. Out-of-control signalling was evident for the raw mortality series with respect to RA-EWMA control limits; a seasonal ARMA model, with GARCH effects, displayed white-noise residuals which were in-control with respect to EWMA control limits and one-step prediction error limits (3SE). The expected series was modelled with a multiplicative seasonal autoregressive model.

Conclusions: The data generating process of monthly raw mortality series at the ICU level displayed autocorrelation, seasonality and volatility. False-positive signalling of the raw mortality series was evident with respect to RA-EWMA control limits.

Indeed, reductions in cardiovascular

Indeed, reductions in cardiovascular LB-100 molecular weight risk and rates of onset of new cases of diabetes mellitus have been reported in trials in patients with hypertension treated with CCAs. These beneficial effects extend beyond those expected to accompany reductions in BP.

Until recently, the biochemical effects underlying these metabolic changes were only poorly understood, but pharmacologic studies have now started to shed more light on these issues.

Of particular interest are studies with manidipine, some of which suggest that this agent may be associated with greater improvements in insulin sensitivity and may have better renal protective properties than other CCAs. Confirmation of potential differences among selective HDAC inhibitors CCAs in terms of the relative magnitude of any beneficial metabolic effects requires further study.

Ongoing research is expected to clarify further the action of these agents at the cellular level and to assist with the optimization of antihypertensive therapy, particularly in patients with elevated cardiovascular risk profiles.”
“Study Design.

To demonstrate the existence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in ligamentum flavum (LF) and their pathogenic role in LF hypertrophy.

Objective. To isolate and characterize LF-derived MSCs and their response to transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) and trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi).

Summary of Background Data. LF is a connective tissue, of which hypertrophic changes induce spinal stenosis. The pathogenic role of TGF-beta 1 in spinal stenosis has been implicated. TSA has been shown to suppress TGF-beta 1-induced alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), type I and III collagen synthesis in a variety of cells. MSCs have been isolated from a variety of adult tissues, except LF. Whether MSCs exist in LF and their response to TGF-beta 1 and TSA is not clear.

Methods. The MSCs

from LF were isolated and cultured. Their phenotypic character, linage differentiation potential, and response to TGF-beta 1 and TSA were analyzed.

Results. LF-derived MSCs have the similar profile of surface markers as bone marrow MSCs. They were demonstrated to have the potential to be differentiated into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. Administration of TGF-beta 1 stimulated HIF inhibitor cell proliferation, enhanced the gene expression of type I and III collagen, and increased the gene expression and protein level of a-SMA. TSA blocked the fibrogenic effects of TGF-beta 1.

Conclusion. The current results demonstrated the isolation of MSCs from LF. The cellular response to TGF-beta 1 implied that these cells might play an important role in the pathogenesis of LF hypertrophy. TSA, which blocks the effects of TGF-beta 1, may be a potent therapeutic choice for inhibiting LF hypertrophy.”
“Background: Epidemiologic evidence suggests that prenatal growth influences adult blood pressure.

“BACKGROUND Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) and undifferentia

“BACKGROUND Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) and undifferentiated

pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) are uncommon, spindle cell cutaneous malignancies. Solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) are immunosuppressed and therefore have a higher incidence of cutaneous malignancies.

OBJECTIVE We describe the clinical spectrum of AFX and a more-aggressive, deeper variant, UPS, in SOTRs.

MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective check details chart review of AFX and UPS in SOTRs was implemented. Cases from Vanderbilt University, Emory University, Mayo Clinic-Jacksonville, and University of Rochester were included. A literature search included previously published cases.

RESULTS The average age of SOTRs at time of tumor presentation was younger than typically seen in immunocompetent patients for AFX. Rates of local recurrences and metastases were higher in

the SOTRs than is noted in the immunocompetent literature. Rates of recurrence were higher in those treated with excision than in those treated with Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS).

CONCLUSION AFX and UPS may have a greater risk for recurrence, metastases, and mortality in SOTRs, in whom early treatment with MMS may demonstrate certain advantages in terms of minimizing risk of recurrence and metastasis. UPS and recurrent tumors should be staged appropriately and may respond to adjuvant radiation therapy and reduction of Apoptosis Compound Library immunosuppression. Immunohistochemical evaluation is recommended to exclude other spindle cell tumors.”
“CoSb3 nanocomposites with different contents of CoSb3 nanoparticles were prepared by mixing nanosized CoSb3 particles obtained via polyol method and micron-sized particles obtained via solid state reaction. X-ray diffractometer and field emission scanning electron microscope were used to characterize the prepared products. The thermoelectric properties of the nanocomposites

with different amounts of nanoparticles as dispersants were measured from room temperature to around 500 degrees C. Due to the grain boundaries scattering, the lattice thermal conductivity was observed to decrease as the amount of nanoparticles increased. DZNeP The electrical properties were also improved by the addition of nanoparticles. The ZT value of the nanocomposites with 10 wt % of nanoparticles was nearly doubled that of the sample without any nanoparticles.”
“BACKGROUND Dermatologic surgeons perform numerous procedures that put them at risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

OBJECTIVE To study the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and role of ergonomics in dermatologic surgery.

METHODS AND MATERIALS A survey study was sent to members of the American College of Mohs Surgery in 2010. The main outcome measures were survey responses relating to surgeon demographics, musculoskeletal symptoms, workstyle habits and attitudes, and ergonomic practices.

RESULTS Ninety percent of respondents reported some type of musculoskeletal symptoms or injuries.

Ninety-two patients (ninety-three shoulders) from Group I met inc

Ninety-two patients (ninety-three shoulders) from Group I met inclusion criteria for subjective follow-up. Minimum two-year subjective data were obtained on 86% (seventy-nine patients [eighty shoulders]) of these ninety-two patients to determine the association of the acromial index on surgical outcomes. Surgical factors were also analyzed. Significance was set at p < 0.05.

Results: The acromial index demonstrated high intraobserver agreement (kappa, 0.960; 95% confidence interval, 0.940 to 0.984) and high interobserver

agreement (kappa, 0.960; 95% confidence interval, 0.922 to 0.979). The mean acromial index selleckchem (and standard deviation) was 0.687 +/- 0.08 for Group I, 0.685 +/- 0.11 for Group II, and 0.694 +/- 0.07 for Group III. No significant differences were found. At an average duration of follow-up of 3.0 years (range, 2.0 to 5.4 years), the mean American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores improved from 59 to 93 points (p = 0.001) in the seventy-nine patients from Group I who had minimum two-year duration of subjective follow-up. The mean postoperative scores were 10.4 points (range, 0 to 54.5 points) for the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Outcome Measure and 9.2 points (on a scale of 1 to 10 points) for patient

satisfaction. When the patients with a large acromial index (>0.682) were compared with those with a small acromial index (<= 0.682), the patients in the former group had a greater likelihood of having a tear involving two or more rotator cuff tendons (p = 0.017), required more anchors to achieve repair (p = 0.007), had slightly LDN-193189 lower patient satisfaction scores (mean, 8.9 compared with 9.5 points; p = 0.055) and Short Form-12 Physical Component Summary scores (mean, 49.1 compared with 55.2 points; p = 0.04), and had higher Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand scores (mean, 12.9 compared with 7.4 points; p = 0.042).

Conclusions: An association between the size of the acromial index and that of full-thickness rotator cuff tears was not confirmed; however, a larger acromial

index was associated with an increased number of tendons torn and anchors used for repair. In addition, patients with a larger acromial index had more disability as recorded by the Quick Nutlin-3a ic50 Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Outcome Measure and poorer physical health as measured by the Short Form-12 Physical Component Summary score.”
“The aim of this research is to develop a new method for studying thermal degradation behavior of elastomers containing butadiene units by isothermal and anisothermal analysis. Accelerated aging such as isothermal thermogravimetry analysis shows that when BR, SBR and NBR elastomers are subjected to specific time and temperature condition in nitrogen atmosphere, an inter-chain reaction occurs.

Charge motion in the conductive layer can cause depletion on larg

Charge motion in the conductive layer can cause depletion on large length scales, making electron confinement in the dot impossible, and can give rise to noise that can overwhelm the single-electron charging signal. Results of capacitance versus gate bias measurements to characterize this conductive layer are presented. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3610524]“
“The omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid, is an important building block of the CNS, and its availability GDC-0973 price during pregnancy and lactation may influence maternal mental health and, later, childhood developmental outcomes. Epidemiological

and observational studies have supported a role for omega-3 fatty acids in optimizing child development and maternal mental health. However, results of randomized intervention studies have not consistently shown beneficial effects for omega-3 fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy and lactation. This review summarizes the biological plausibility, as well as the available evidence from observational and randomized controlled trials, of omega-3 supplementation in pregnancy

and lactation.”
“Brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a measure of endothelial nitric oxide bioavailability. selleck chemical Endothelial nitric oxide controls vascular tone and is likely to modify the ventricular muscle coupling mechanism. The Selleck BKM120 association between left ventricular mass and FMD is not well understood. We assessed the association between left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and FMD in participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). MESA is a population-based study of 6814 adults free of clinical cardiovascular disease at baseline who were recruited from six US clinics. LVMI (left ventricular mass per body surface area) and FMD

were measured in 2447 subjects. Linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the association. The subjects had a mean age of 61.2 +/- 9.9 years, 51.2% females with 34.3% Caucasians, 21.6% Chinese, 19.4% African Americans and 24.7% Hispanics. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 27.4 +/- 4.8 kgm(-2), 9.4% had diabetes, 11% were current smokers and 38% hypertensives. The mean +/- s.d. LVMI was 78.1 +/- 15.9 gm(-2) and mean +/- s.d. FMD was 4.4% +/- 2.8%. In univariate analysis, LVMI was inversely correlated with FMD (r=-0.20, P < 0.0001). In the multivariable analysis, LVMI was associated with FMD (beta coefficient (se)=-0.50 (0.11), P < 0.001 (0.5 gm(-2) reduction in LVMI per 1% increase in FMD)) after adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, systolic blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, smoking, weight, statin use, antihypertensive medication use, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol.

Using Western blot, variant a or b was also detectable in the sam

Using Western blot, variant a or b was also detectable in the same cochlear tissues mentioned above.

Conclusions: PMCA2 and its splice variants at sites A and C are differentially

expressed in cochlear tissues of neonatal rat. (c) 2010 Sonidegib cost Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a common veterinary antibiotic in biogas plants. 20 mg/kg of oxytetracycline was intramuscularly injected into a cow and its concentration in manure, which was sampled daily during the following 20 days, was measured. A total of 20 % of the injected oxytetracycline was detected in manure. Collected manure samples on days 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 were digested in triplicate serum bottles at 37 A degrees C for 30 days. Control serum bottles produced 255 this website +/- A 13 mL biogas, whereas 50-60 % inhibitions were obtained for the serum bottles operated with samples collected for the 5 days after medication. Multivariate statistics used for the evaluation of FISH results showed that Methanomicrobiales were the main methanogenic group responsible for most of the biogas production. Numbers of active Bacteria and Methanomicrobiales were negatively correlated with the presence of oxytetracycline, whereas Methanosarcinales

and Methanobacteriales were less affected.”
“Background: Compartment syndrome after ballistic fracture is uncommon but potentially devastating. Few data are available to help guide clinicians regarding risk factors for developing compartment syndrome after ballistic fractures. Our primary hypothesis was that ballistic fractures of certain bones would be at higher risk for development of compartment syndrome.

Methods: A retrospective review at a Level I trauma center from 2001 through 2007 yielded 650 patients with 938 fractures resulting from gunshots. We reviewed all operative notes, clinic notes, discharge summaries, and data from our prospective trauma database. Cases in which the attending orthopedic surgeon diagnosed compartment syndrome and performed fasciotomy were considered cases with compartment syndrome. We excluded all prophylactic

fasciotomies. Univariate analyses were conducted to identify risk factors associated with development of compartment syndrome.

Results: Twenty-six (2.8%) of the 938 fractures Selleckchem Buparlisib were associated with compartment syndrome. Only fibular (11.6%) and tibial (11.4%) fractures had incidence significantly higher than baseline for all ballistic fractures (p < 0.001). Fractures of the proximal third of the fibula were more likely to result in compartment syndrome than fractures of the middle or distal third (p = 0.03), as were fractures of the proximal third of the tibia (p = 0.01). No other demographic or injury parameters were associated with compartment syndrome.

Conclusion: Ballistic fractures of the fibula and tibia are at increased risk for development of compartment syndrome over other ballistic fractures.

It is primarily based on field surveys carried out in villages, w

It is primarily based on field surveys carried out in villages, where dwellers provided information on animal species used as medicine, body parts used to prepare the remedies, and the illnesses to which the remedies were prescribed. The dominant tribes involved in using animal selleck chemical parts as medicines in the district are Santhal, Kol, Bhumija, Bhuyan, Mahalis, Sounti and Saharas. The animal parts, namely, blood, excreta, feather and hair were used in raw or cooked forms for the treatment of piles, asthma, skin diseases, fever and rheumatism. The species used as medicinal drug and their respective families were: Bos gaurus gaurus(Mammalia), Buceros bicormis (Bucerotidae),

Crocodylus palustris (Crocodilidae), Pavo cristatus(Phasianidae), Hystrix indica (Rodentia), Pterocarpus giganteus (Chiroptera) and Sus scorofacristatus (Mammalia). These zootherapeutical resources were used for HDAC inhibitor the cure of 12 illnesses.”
“Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L), an ancient crop with modern

virtues has recently gained worldwide attention, mainly for its nutritional and medicinal value as the berries contain different kinds of nutrients and bioactive compounds including vitamins, fatty acids, free amino acids and elemental components. This review briefly summarises the current literature and discusses its potential as a crop and its post harvest processing. The available compositional data regarding sea buckthorn berries is tabulated to produce a comprehensive source of recent information on chemical and medicinally S3I-201 concentration important constituents of different origin and varieties. The presence of valuable chemicals and nutritionally important constituents in sea buckthorn berries, and from the scientific knowledge of their importance,

it is clear that sea buckthorn berry is one of the most important sources of these constituents, and should be used as alternative nutritional sources in the commercial market. Similarly in depth investigation on the effect of processing on the total nutrient content of sea buckthorn berries species growing in different agro-ecological regions needs to be carried out. Thus, several important knowledge gaps identified in this paper would give impetus to new academic and R&D activities, in turn generating innovative job profile in food and cosmoceutical industries. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a disorder characterized by degeneration of lower motor neurons and occasionally bulbar motor neurons leading to progressive limb and trunk paralysis as well as muscular atrophy. Three types of SMA are recognized depending on the age of onset, the maximum muscular activity achieved, and survivorship: SMA1, SMA2, and SMA3. The survival of motor neuron (SMN) gene has been identified as an SMA determining gene, whereas the neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) gene is considered to be a modifying factor of the severity of SMA.