We have demonstrated a solution to this problem that harnesses th

We have demonstrated a solution to this problem that harnesses the computational power of today’s large massively parallel computers by combining a CA-4948 classical Wang-Landau Monte-Carlo calculation [F. Wang and D. P. Landau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2050 (2001)] with our first principles multiple scattering electronic structure code [Y. Wang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2867 (1995)] that allows the energy calculation of constrained magnetic states [M. Eisenbach et al.,

Proceedings of the Conference on High Performance Computing, Networking, Storage and Analysis (ACM, New York, 2009)]. We present our calculations of finite temperature properties of Fe and Fe3C using this approach and we find the Curie temperatures to be 980 and 425K, respectively. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3562218]“
“An emulsion polymerization method was employed to prepare pulverized expandable graphite (pEG)-poly(methyl methacrylate-acrylic acid) copolymer [(PMA)] composite particles, and then the pEG-P(MA) particles were used for a flame retardant of the rigid polyurethane foam (RPUF). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy data demonstrated

the Epigenetics inhibitor existence of P(MA) in the pEG-P(MA) particles, and the result of the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that the content of P(MA) was 24.3 wt %. Morphological observation showed that the pEG particles were encapsulated by a layer of polymer coating to form typical core-shell composite particles. Due to the possible reaction between -COOH of pEG-P(MA) and R-CNO of isocyanate, the compatibility between the selleckchem composite particles

and the RPUF matrix was highly enhanced. In contrast to the pEG, the limiting oxygen index (LOI), the horizontal and vertical burning tests showed the pEG-P(MA) composite particles could improve the flame retardancy effectively. The improved flame retardancy of the RPUF matrix was attributed to the increased expansion volume ratio of pEG-P(MA) particles as exposed to fire. The dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA) showed that the incorporation of the core-shell particles could improve the storage modulus and tan delta of the RPUF composites. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 122: 932-941, 2011″
“The regulation of gene expression is an important determinant of organismal phenotype and evolution. However, the widespread recognition of this fact occurred long after the synthesis of evolution and genetics. Here, we give a brief sketch of thoughts regarding gene regulation in the history of evolution and genetics.

The value of IONM in prognosticating neural function and in intra

The value of IONM in prognosticating neural function and in intraoperative decision making regarding proceeding to bilateral surgery is also well-known. Initial data on recent extensions of IONM in the form of SLN monitoring and continuous vagal nerve monitoring are promising. Continuous vagal nerve monitoring expands the utility of IONM by providing real-time electrophysiological

buy LGX818 information, allowing surgeons to take a corrective action in impending neural injury.”
“Objective. Functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) enables reliable quantification of cerebral blood flow modulation during neural activation processes. Its high-time resolution, relatively simple technical arrangement, and low costs could make fTCD a useful tool in the investigation of brain activity underlying pain experience in fundamental and clinical research. The present pilot study explored the suitability of this technique to investigate cerebral hemodynamics during the processing of experimental heat pain.

Design. In 46 healthy subjects, this website blood flow velocities in the anterior cerebral arteries (ACA) and middle cerebral arteries (MCA) of both hemispheres were recorded, while heat stimuli of 45 and 47 degrees C were applied to their left forearms (stimulus duration 20 seconds).

Subjective sensory and affective pain intensities were assessed using visual analog scales.


A biphasic right dominant blood flow increase arose in the ACA and MCA with maxima around 5 and 15 seconds after stimulus onset. The response was stronger under stimulation with 47 degrees C with respect to 45 degrees C, and the magnitude of the late response component correlated positively with sensory and affective pain intensity under the 45 degrees C condition.

Conclusions. The findings suggest that fTCD measurements prove sensitive both to different levels of physical intensity of painful stimuli and to interindividual differences in nociceptive responding. fTCD may be a valuable tool in clinical pain research, Selleck RG7112 for instance, when it comes to quantifying the temporal dynamics of exaggerated nociceptive responses in chronic pain, or evaluating treatment effects on nociceptive processing.”
“Background: Typical Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is commonly caused by a similar to 1.5 Mb – similar to 1.8 Mb heterozygous deletion of contiguous genes at chromosome region 7q11.23. The majority of WBS cases occurs sporadically but few familial cases of autosomal dominant inheritance have been reported. Recent data demonstrated the existence of the paracentric inversion polymorphism at the WBS critical region in 7q11.23 in some of the progenitors transmitting the chromosome which shows the deletion in the affected child.

5 +/- 52 5 vs -4 8 +/- 44 0, P = 0 002) and LVESV (mL) (-34 0 +/-

5 +/- 52.5 vs -4.8 +/- 44.0, P = 0.002) and LVESV (mL) (-34.0 +/- 55.5 vs -9.9 +/- 45.8, Staurosporine inhibitor P = 0.002) and improvement in LVEF (%) (8.9 +/- 12.8 vs 4.5 +/- 9.0, P = 0.007) than patients without narrowing. In univariate analysis, female gender (P = 0.0002), percent QRS narrowing from baseline (P = 0.008), lack of nitrate (P < 0.0001) and antiarrhythmic medication use (P = 0.01), lack of a nonspecific intraventricular conduction delay (=0.02), nonischemic cardiomyopathy (P = 0.003), and lower pre-CRT LVEDV (P = 0.006) and LVESV [P = 0.01]) were associated with responders. In a multivariate model, QRS narrowing, indexed to

the baseline QRS duration, remained strongly associated with response (odds ratio 0.08 [0.01-0.56], P = 0.01).

Conclusions: After adjusting for potential confounders, QRS narrowing, indexed to baseline QRS duration, is associated with enhanced reverse ventricular

remodeling following CRT. (PACE 2011; 34:604-611).”
“Objective. The objective of this study was to evaluate immediate and late postoperative complications in treating zygomatic complex fractures by 2 modified approaches; namely, the modified lateral orbitotomy approach and the modified hemicoronal approach.

Study design. Twenty zygomatic complex fractures were treated, with 10 being treated with the modified lateral orbitotomy approach and the other 10 by the modified hemicoronal approach. Both groups were evaluated for postoperative complications, ie, hematoma, infection, swelling, and nerve injury. The incisions were also evaluated in PU-H71 datasheet all patients using clinical evaluation and visual analogue scales.

Results. Nocodazole in vivo Patients in both groups had temporary facial nerve injury that was primarily related to retraction of the nerve. There were no hematomas observed in any of the groups. As compared to the modified lateral orbitotomy approach, swelling was observed on more occasions with the modified hemicoronal approach. Infection was not observed in any of the groups. As far as the esthetics in relation to the incision was concerned, the patients accepted the

modified hemicoronal approach more strongly as compared with the modified lateral orbitotomy approach.

Conclusion. The modified hemicoronal approach seems to be preferred to the modified lateral orbitotomy approach with respect to treating zygomatic complex fractures. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010; 109: 504-509)”
“Chronic oral or systemic nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) therapy, ubiquitously used by physicians to treat osteoarthritis-associated pain, is associated with a wide range of symptomatic adverse events, the most frequent and serious of which is gastropathy. Although cardiovascular and renal problems are a very real concern, they are significantly less frequent.

A diagnosis of primary solitary cutaneous plasmacytoma was made

A diagnosis of primary solitary cutaneous plasmacytoma was made. The lesion was removed surgically, selleck chemical and the patient remains in remission up to now. Primary cutaneous plasmacytoma represents only 2%-4% of extramedullary plasmacytomas. The rarity and the nonspecific presentation of cutaneous plasmacytomas does not allow a definite clinical diagnosis. Only histopathology reveals the typical pattern of a dense monomorphic dermal plasmacytic infiltrate, whereas immunohistochemistry shows monoclonality of the neoplastic cells.”
“We studied radiographic features of pulmonary tuberculosis

(PTB) described in the report forms for 907 adolescents from two Brazilian cities. A descriptive analysis showed that the most common radiographic lesions were post-primary tuberculosis (53.3%),

tuberculous expansile pneumonia (27%) and primary complex with adenomegaly (1.8%). Cavitary lesions occurred in 67/243 (27.6%) patients aged 0-15 years and in 116/321 (36.1%) adolescents aged 16-19 years (P = 0.031). Most of the PTB cases had forms similar to those in adults.”
“Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade systemic inflammation. Bariatric surgery has been shown to reduce this inflammation. Here, the effect of a nonsurgical bariatric technique, the duodenal-jejunal bypass liner (DJBL), on systemic inflammation was investigated. Seventeen obese Tubastatin A patients with type 2 diabetes were treated with the DJBL for 6 months. Plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), myeloperoxidase (MPO), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) were determined prior to and during DJBL treatment. Three months after initiation of DJBL treatment, TNF-alpha levels had increased from 1.8 +/- 0.1 to 2.1 +/- 0.1 pg/mL, whereas IL-6 increased from 2.7 +/- 0.3 to 4.0 +/- 0.5 pg/mL (both p < 0.05). CRP and MPO also increased, though the differences were not significant. After 6 months, the levels of all parameters were similar to baseline levels (CRP, 4.2 +/- 0.6 mg/L; TNF-alpha, 2.0 +/- 0.1 pg/mL; IL-6, 3.5 +/- 0.5 pg/mL; MPO, 53.6 +/- ng/mL;

all p = ns compared to baseline). In the current study, 6 months of endoscopic DJBL treatment did not lead selleck inhibitor to decreased systemic inflammation.”
“Endometriosis is a disease process characterized by ectopic endometrial tissue. Involvement most commonly occurs in the lower pelvis, outside the uterine cavity, but can occur elsewhere, including the skin. Cutaneous endometriosis is a rare manifestation of this disease, with decidualization occurring in a very small minority of cases, almost always seen in pregnant females. Cutaneous involvement of endometriosis may present a diagnostic problem for the pathologist, particularly in the event of decidualization. Decidualization may mimic a malignancy and as a result may result in unnecessary diagnostic studies for the patient.

A Tran and G E M Reeves “
“The purpose of our study was

A. Tran and G. E. M. Reeves.”
“The purpose of our study was to determine the effects of anesthetic technique and ambient temperature on thermoregulation for patients undergoing lower extremity surgery.

Our study included 90 male patients aged 18-60 years in American

Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Pfizer Licensed Compound Library in vivo Status groups I or II who were scheduled for lower extremity surgery. Patients were randomly divided into three groups according to anesthetic technique: general anesthesia (GA), epidural anesthesia (EA), and femoral-sciatic block (FS). These groups were divided into subgroups according to room temperature: the temperature for group I was 20-22 A degrees C and that for group II was 23-25 A degrees C. Therefore, we labeled the groups as follows: GA I, GA II, EA I, EA II, FS I, and FS II. Probes for measuring tympanic membrane and peripheral temperature were placed in and on the patients, and mean skin temperature (MST) and mean body temperature (MBT) were assessed. Postoperative shivering scores were recorded.

During anesthesia, tympanic temperature and MBT decreased whereas MST increased for all patients. There was no significant difference between tympanic temperatures in either the room temperature or

anesthetic method groups. Entrectinib manufacturer MST was lower in group GA I than in group GA II after 5, 10, 15, 20, 60 and 90 min whereas MBT was significantly lower at the basal level (p < 0.05). MST AZD2014 molecular weight after 5 min was significantly lower in group GA I than in group FS I (p < 0.05). Shivering score was significantly higher in group GA I (p < 0.05).

There were no significant differences in thermoregulation among anesthetic techniques. Room temperature affected thermoregulation in Group GA.”
“Ozonolysis of omega-anhydro-20-hydroxyecdysone diacetonide gave a mixture of 24- and 25-oxo derivatives, and only the first of these (23-carbaldehyde) reacted with malonic acid according to Knoevenagel to give 14 alpha-hydroxy-2 beta,3 beta: 20,22-bis(isopropylidenedioxy)-6-oxo-27-nor-5 beta-cholesta-7,24-dien-26-oic acid. The oxidation of 23-carbaldehyde with ozone, followed by treatment with diazomethane, afforded

20-hydroxy-25,26,27-trinorecdysone-23-carboxylic acid methyl ester diacetonide.”
“The authors conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind study to evaluate the anti-shivering efficacy of palonosetron for patients after gynecological laparoscopy under total intravenous propofol-remifentanil anesthesia.

Sixty female patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups and administered palonosetron 0.075 mg (palonosetron group, n = 30) or the same volume of normal saline (control group, n = 30) immediately after anesthesia induction. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol and remifentanil, using a target-controlled infusion device. Esophageal and index finger temperatures were measured immediately after anesthesia induction (baseline) and at 15-min intervals until the end of the surgery.

Here we show that TREHALOSE PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE11 (TPS11) gene-dep

Here we show that TREHALOSE PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE11 (TPS11) gene-dependent trehalose metabolism regulates Arabidopsis thaliana defense against Myzus persicae (Sulzer), commonly known as the green peach aphid (GPA). GPA infestation of Arabidopsis resulted in a transient increase in trehalose and expression of the TPS11 gene, which encodes a trehalose-6-phosphate synthase/phosphatase. Knockout of TPS11 function abolished trehalose increases in GPA-infested leaves of the tps11 mutant plant and attenuated defense against GPA. Trehalose application restored resistance in the tps11 mutant, confirming that the lack of trehalose accumulation

is associated with the inability PF-6463922 of the tps11 mutant to control GPA infestation. Resistance against GPA was also higher in the trehalose hyper-accumulating tre1 mutant and in bacterial otsB gene-expressing plants, further supporting the conclusion that trehalose plays a role in Arabidopsis defense against GPA. Evidence presented here indicates that TPS11-dependent trehalose regulates expression of the PHYTOALEXIN

DEFICIENT4 gene, which is a key modulator of defenses against GPA. TPS11 also promotes the re-allocation of carbon into starch at the expense of sucrose, the primary plant-derived carbon and energy source for the insect. Our results provide a framework for the signaling function of TPS11-dependent trehalose in plant cancer metabolism inhibitor stress responses, and also reveal an important contribution of starch in controlling the severity of aphid infestation.”
“Iron (Fe) is an essential element for plant growth. Commonly, this element is found in an oxidized form in soil, which is poorly available for plants. Therefore, plants have evolved ferric-chelate reductase enzymes (FRO) to reduce iron into a more soluble ferrous form. Fe scarcity in plants induce the FRO enzyme activity. Although the legume Medicago truncatula has been employed as a model for FRO activity studies, only one copy of the M. truncatula MtFRO1 gene has been characterized so far. In this study, we identified multiple

gene copies of the MtFRO gene in the genome of M. truncatula by an in silico search, using BLAST analysis in the database of the M. truncatula Genome Sequencing Project and the National Center for Biotechnology Information, and also determined whether they are functional. We identified five genes apart from MtFRO1, which had been LY3023414 order already characterized. All of the MtFRO genes exhibited high identity with homologous FRO genes from Lycopersicon esculentum, Citrus junos and Arabidopsis thaliana. The gene copies also presented characteristic conserved FAD and NADPH motifs, transmembrane regions and oxidoreductase signature motifs. We also detected expression in five of the putative MtFRO sequences by semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis, performed with mRNA from root and shoot tissues. Iron scarcity might be a condition for an elevated expression of the MtFRO genes observed in different M. truncatula tissues.

Clinical and ocular symptoms were

scored and recorded Co

Clinical and ocular symptoms were

scored and recorded. Conjunctival samples were collected using a cytobrush, and nucleic acid extraction using RT-PCR was carried out to analyze for the presence of various infectious agents. Results RT-PCR detected either FCV, feline herpes virus type 1 (FHV-1), Chlamydophila felis or Mycoplasma spp. in 63/99 samples. 30/63 samples were positive for FCV, 23/63 for C.similar to felis, 21/63 for Mycoplasma spp., and 16/63 for FHV-1. Out of the 30 FCV-positive samples, 11 were positive only for FCV and in 19 samples FCV was seen in combination with other agents. FCV infection was highest in animals examined at the rescue centers and in the age group of 02 months. Erosive conjunctivitis was an important ocular finding. Oral ulcers were detected in all FCV-infected cats. Conclusion Results indicate that FCV is highly Selleck Nirogacestat prevalent NU7441 nmr in cats with URTD either as a sole infectious agent or in combination with other pathogens and therefore is a potential cause for ocular surface lesions during the URTD.”

carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths. In addition to hepatitis viral infections, several cohort studies have shown that diabetes mellitus is a risk factor of HCC, making the incidence alarming high. However, it has not been demonstrated directly how diabetes develops to HCC, because of its difficulty to follow changes of liver histology in diabetic populations. Here, we report that non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is pivotal to link diabetes with HCC by establishing a novel, reproducible NASH-HCC model in mice. Neonatal male mice exposed to low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) developed Compound C liver steatosis with diabetes 1 week after feeding high-fat diet (HFD). Continuous HFD decreased hepatic fat deposit whilst increased lobular inflammation with foam cell-like macrophages, showing NASH pathology. In parallel with decreased phagocytosis

of macrophages, fibroblasts accumulated to form “”chicken-wired”" fibrosis. All mice developed multiple HCC later. Female mice treated with STZ-HFD and male mice treated with STZ alone showed diabetes but never developed HCC by the absence of NASH-based fibrosis. Thus, the present study provides the evidence in novel mouse model that NASH-based fibrosis is an essential histological process for diabetic populations to accelerate the development of HCC.”
“Purpose of review

For patients presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is superior to onsite fibrinolytic therapy (O-FT) when administered in a timely fashion. This benefit diminishes as PCI-related delay increases. This review examines recent data exploring this relationship, offering insight into possible mechanisms for the time-dependent benefit of PCI.

One of the largest studies reviewed was a retrospective review of

One of the largest studies reviewed was a retrospective review of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons database. The authors compared 4531 patients who underwent lobectomy by video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) with 8431 patients who had thoracotomy. In patients with a predicted postoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 s (ppoFEV(1)%) of < 60, it was demonstrated that thoracotomy patients have markedly increased pulmonary complications

when compared with VATS patients (P = 0.023). Another study compared perioperative outcomes in patients with a ppoFEV(1)% of < 40% who underwent thoracoscopic resection with similar patients who underwent open resection. Patients undergoing thoracoscopic ACY-738 cell line resection as opposed to open thoracotomy had a lower incidence of pneumonia (4.3 vs 21.7%, P < 0.05), a shorter intensive care stay (2 vs 4 days, P = 0.05) and a shorter hospital stay (7 vs 10 days, P = 0.058). A similar study compared recurrence and survival in patients with a ppoFEV(1)% of < 40% who underwent resection by VATS or anatomical segmentectomy (study group) with open resection (control group). Relative to the control group, patients in the study group had a shorter length of hospital stay (8 vs 12 days,

P = 0.054) and an improved 5-year survival (42 vs 18%, P = 0.02). Analysis suggested that VATS lobectomy was the principal driver of survival benefit in the study group. We Dinaciclib Cell Cycle inhibitor conclude that patients with limited pulmonary function have better outcomes when surgery is performed via VATS compared with traditional open techniques. The literature Mocetinostat manufacturer also suggests that patients in whom pulmonary function is poor have similar perioperative

outcomes to those with normal function when a VATS approach to resection is adopted.”
“Memantine is a low to moderate affinity N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist. The effects of memantine in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have been studied in 7 randomized controlled trials in many post-hoc analyses. Three out of four RCTs in patients with moderate to severe AD (Mini Mental State Examination [MMSE] < 14) showed a statistically significant but clinically small positive effect of memantine on cognition, global functioning, activities of daily living (ADL) and neuropsychiatric symptoms. No effects on these outcome measures could be found in the three RCTs studying patients with mild to moderate AD (MMSE 14-24). Two of these studies evaluated the effect of addition of memantine to donepezil. Only the study in patients with mild to moderate AD showed a positive effect of addition of memantine on cognition, ADL, global functioning and neuropsychiatric functioning. Cost-effectiveness of memantine therapy remains controversial. Post-hoc analyses and observational studies suggest some effects on agitation/aggression, delusions or hallucinations.

There were fewer and smaller afferent vascular buds in the rats o

There were fewer and smaller afferent vascular buds in the rats of the aged group than in the young control group. The ratio of the non-calcified to the calcified layers in the rats of the aged group significantly decreased, compared with that of the young control group (P < 0.01).

Rats can spontaneously establish intervertebral IWR-1 solubility dmso disc age-related degeneration. The expression of collagen types II and X, numbers and areas of afferent vascular buds, the ratio of the non-calcified to the calcified layers, and water and glycosaminoglycan

contents in the nucleus pulposus are sensitive indexes of intervertebral disc degeneration.”
“Background: The development of the fetal endocannabinoid receptor system may be vulnerable

to maternal cannabis use during pregnancy and may produce long-term consequences in children. In this study, we aimed to determine the relationship between gestational cannabis use and childhood attention find more problems and aggressive behavior.

Methods: Using a large general population birth cohort, we examined the associations between parental prenatal cannabis and tobacco use and childhood behavior problems at 18 months measured using the Child Behavior Checklist in N=4077 children. Substance use was measured in early pregnancy.

Results: Linear regression analyses demonstrated that gestational exposure to cannabis is associated with behavioral problems in early childhood but only in girls and only in the area of increased aggressive behavior (B = 2.02; 95% CI: 0.30-3.73; p = 0.02) and attention

problems (B = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.46-1.62; p < 0.001). Furthermore, this study showed that long-term (but not short term) tobacco exposure was associated with behavioral this website problems in girls (B = 1.16; 95% Cl: 0.20-2.12; p = 0.02). There was no association between cannabis use of the father and child behavior problems.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that intrauterine exposure to cannabis is associated with an increased risk for aggressive behavior and attention problems as early as 18 months of age in girls, but not boys. Further research is needed to explore the association between prenatal cannabis exposure and child behavior at later ages. Our data support educating future mothers about the risk to their babies should they smoke cannabis during pregnancy. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In the present investigation, polysulfone (PSu) nanocomposites were successfully prepared by solvent casting method. Layered silicates, viz., sodium montmorillonite (NaMMT), Cloisite 93A, and Cloisite 30B were dispersed in PSu to obtain nanocomposite membranes. PSu nanocomposite membranes were tested for mechanical performance, water uptake, thermal properties, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

The factors most strongly associated with return to duty were bei

The factors most strongly associated with return to duty were being a senior officer (adjusted OR 2.01, 95% Cl 1.71-2.35, p<0.0001), having a non-battle-related injury or disease (3.18, 2.77-3.67, p<0.0001), and presenting with chest or abdominal pain (2.48, 1.61-3.81, p<0.0001), a gastrointestinal disorder (non-surgical 2.32, 1.51-3.56, p=0.0001; surgical 2.62, 1.69-4.06, p<0.0001), or a genitourinary disorder (2.19, 1.43-3.36, p=0.0003). Covariates associated with a decreased probability of return

to duty were serving in the navy or coast guard (0.59, 0.45-0.78, p=0.0002), or marines (0.86,0.77-0.96, p=0.0083); and presenting with a combat injury (0.27, 0.17-0.44, p<0.0001), a psychiatric disorder (0.28, 0.18-0.43, selleck compound p<0.0001), musculoskeletal or connective tissue disorder (0.46, 0.30-0.71, p=0.0004), spinal pain (0.41, 0.26-0.63, p=0.0001), or other wound (0.54, 0.34-0.84, p=0.0069).

Interpretation Implementation of preventive measures for service members who are at highest risk of evacuation, forward-deployed treatment, and therapeutic interventions could reduce the effect of non-battle-related

injuries and disease on military readiness.”
“Background Intimate-partner violence might increase during and after LY2090314 molecular weight exposure to collective violence. We assessed whether political violence was associated with male-to-female intimate-partner violence in the occupied Palestinian territory.

Methods A nationally representative, cross-sectional survey was done between Dec 18, 2005, and Jan 18, 2006, by the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. 4156 households Adenosine triphosphate were randomly selected with a multistage random cluster design, from which 3815 ever-married women aged 15-64 years were identified. We restricted our analysis to presently

married women (n=3510, 92% participation rate), who completed a short version of the revised conflict tactics scales and exposure to political violence inventory Exposure to political violence was characterised as the husband’s direct exposure, his indirect exposure via his family’s experiences, and economic effects of exposure on the household. We used adjusted multinomial logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for association between political violence and intimate-partner violence.

Findings Political violence was significantly related to higher odds of intimate-partner violence. ORs were 1.89 (95% CI 1.29-2.76) for physical and 2.23 (1.49-3.35) for sexual intimate. partner violence in respondents whose husbands were directly exposed to political violence compared with those whose husbands were not directly exposed. For women whose husbands were indirectly exposed, ORs were 1.61 (1.25-2.07) for physical and 1.97 (1.49-2.60) for sexual violence, compared with those whose husbands were not indirectly exposed. Economic effects of exposure were associated with increased odds of intimate-partner violence in the Gaza Strip only.