Here we show that TREHALOSE PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE11 (TPS11) gene-dependent trehalose metabolism regulates Arabidopsis thaliana defense against Myzus persicae (Sulzer), commonly known as the green peach aphid (GPA). GPA infestation of Arabidopsis resulted in a transient increase in trehalose and expression of the TPS11 gene, which encodes a trehalose-6-phosphate synthase/phosphatase. Knockout of TPS11 function abolished trehalose increases in GPA-infested leaves of the tps11 mutant plant and attenuated defense against GPA. Trehalose application restored resistance in the tps11 mutant, confirming that the lack of trehalose accumulation
is associated with the inability PF-6463922 of the tps11 mutant to control GPA infestation. Resistance against GPA was also higher in the trehalose hyper-accumulating tre1 mutant and in bacterial otsB gene-expressing plants, further supporting the conclusion that trehalose plays a role in Arabidopsis defense against GPA. Evidence presented here indicates that TPS11-dependent trehalose regulates expression of the PHYTOALEXIN
DEFICIENT4 gene, which is a key modulator of defenses against GPA. TPS11 also promotes the re-allocation of carbon into starch at the expense of sucrose, the primary plant-derived carbon and energy source for the insect. Our results provide a framework for the signaling function of TPS11-dependent trehalose in plant cancer metabolism inhibitor stress responses, and also reveal an important contribution of starch in controlling the severity of aphid infestation.”
“Iron (Fe) is an essential element for plant growth. Commonly, this element is found in an oxidized form in soil, which is poorly available for plants. Therefore, plants have evolved ferric-chelate reductase enzymes (FRO) to reduce iron into a more soluble ferrous form. Fe scarcity in plants induce the FRO enzyme activity. Although the legume Medicago truncatula has been employed as a model for FRO activity studies, only one copy of the M. truncatula MtFRO1 gene has been characterized so far. In this study, we identified multiple
gene copies of the MtFRO gene in the genome of M. truncatula by an in silico search, using BLAST analysis in the database of the M. truncatula Genome Sequencing Project and the National Center for Biotechnology Information, and also determined whether they are functional. We identified five genes apart from MtFRO1, which had been LY3023414 order already characterized. All of the MtFRO genes exhibited high identity with homologous FRO genes from Lycopersicon esculentum, Citrus junos and Arabidopsis thaliana. The gene copies also presented characteristic conserved FAD and NADPH motifs, transmembrane regions and oxidoreductase signature motifs. We also detected expression in five of the putative MtFRO sequences by semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis, performed with mRNA from root and shoot tissues. Iron scarcity might be a condition for an elevated expression of the MtFRO genes observed in different M. truncatula tissues.