The patients were then randomised to receive either an additional

The patients were then randomised to receive either an additional transition-rating or then-test questionnaire at discharge.


Out of 426 patients, 395 (92.7%) completed all questionnaires. Correlation coefficients between indirect and quasi-indirect measures of change ranged from r = .60 to r = .71, compared to r = .37 to r = .48 between indirect and direct measures of change. Correlation coefficients between pre-test and retrospective pre-test (then-test) results ranged from Nutlin-3 research buy r = .69 to r = .82, indicating a low level of recall bias. Pre-test variation accounted for a substantial amount of variance in transition ratings in addition to the post-test scores, indicating a low level of present-state bias.

Conclusions: Indirect and quasi-indirect measurements of change yielded comparable results indicating that recall bias does not necessarily affect quasi-indirect measurement of change. Quasi-indirect measurement might serve as a substitute for pre-post measurement under conditions still to be specified. Transition ratings reflect different aspects of change than indirect and quasi-indirect methods do, but are not necessarily biased by patients’ present states.”
“Objective. To evaluate the relationship between commonly used final needle-tip

positions and subsequent contrast flow and patient-reported pain relief in transforaminal epidural steroid injections (TFESIs).

Design. Retrospective cross-sectional study.

Methods. Medical records of subjects (N = 83) having undergone a TFESI between January 2008 and January 2009 were reviewed to compare TFESIs using the superior-anterior (SA) GM6001 solubility dmso vs. the superior-posterior (SP) quadrant.

Outcome Measures. Outcome measures included ventral and dorsal epidural contrast flow as well

as near-to-complete pain relief as measured by numerical rating scale pain score pre- and post-procedure.

Results. SA TFESIs were associated with greater ventral epidural contrast flow as compared with SP TFESIs (100% vs 61.4%, P < 0.001). SA TFESIs with ventral epidural contrast flow were also associated with flow to a greater number of vertebral levels than SP TFESIs with ventral epidural contrast flow (41% vs 14.8%, P < 0.001). SP TFESIs were associated with greater dorsal epidural contrast flow than SA TFESIs (95.5% vs 43.6%, P < QNZ research buy 0.05). SA TFESIs were also associated with a larger proportion of patients who achieved near-to-complete pain relief (P < 0.05) and greater reduction than SP TFESIs in post-procedure pain score relative to pre-procedure (3.3 vs 1.5, P < 0.01).

Discussion. The evolution of TFESIs must balance both safety and efficacy. The efficacy of SA TFESIs is demonstrated to be superior to that of SP TFESIs with regards to ventral epidural flow and patient-reported pain relief. Further efforts should focus on demonstrating efficacy while optimizing safety.

Results: In all the models, DAS-77 produced significant dose-depe

Results: In all the models, DAS-77 produced significant dose-dependent reductions in ulcer score. Peak effects were produced at the dose of 400 mg/kg with ulcer inhibition values of IPI145 98.57, 76.23, 99.28 and 96.70 % compared to 100.00, 93.79, 98.92 and 96.79 % for misoprostol/cimetidine, respectively, for the ethanol, indomethacin, PL and CRS models. In the PL model, DAS-77 caused a significant increase in pH of gastric content but a reduction in volume and titratable acidity. At doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg in the CRS model, DAS-77 significantly increased the level

of reduced glutathione (GSH) and diminished MDA.

Conclusion: The results obtained in this study suggest that DAS-77 possesses gastroprotective activity possibly due to reduced gastric secretion and acidity,

and antioxidant activity.”
“Ozonolysis and hydrogenation reaction was performed on ten North-American vegetable oils. From these oils, canola oil and sunflower oil were chemically refined. Camelina, juvenile canola, three types of flax and three types of mustard were cold pressed and their oils were processed without CA4P Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor further treatment. The production of polyols from unrefined vegetable oils by the ozonolysis-hydrogenation process is reported for the first time. The resulting polyols and mono-ols were characterized by GC-FID, DSC, GPC, HPLC, and their acid and hydroxyl numbers, viscosity and molecular weight distribution were determined. Results showed that the physical properties of the refined vegetable oils were different from the unrefined vegetable oils as they displayed higher hydroxyl Small Molecule Compound Library values. However, the physical properties of the polyols from the unrefined starting materials are expected to be sufficient to be utilized as monomers for the production of polymeric materials. Crown Copyright (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier

B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The paper presents a comparative study of selected recognition methods for the medical decision problem -acute abdominal pain diagnosis. We consider if it is worth using expert knowledge and learning set at the same time. The article shows two groups of decision tree approaches to the problem under consideration. The first does not use expert knowledge and generates classifier only on the basis of learning set. The second approach utilizes expert knowledge for specifying the decision tree structure and learning set for determining mode of decision making in each node based on Bayes decision theory. All classifiers are evaluated on the basis of computer experiments.”
“Purpose: To evaluate the possible analgesic properties of the methanol leaf extract of Alstonia boonei (De Wild, Apocynaceae) a locally available plant used in traditional medicine for the management of pain and other conditions.

Methods: Alstonia boonei leaves were extracted with methanol. Rodent models were employed in screening the analgesic effect of the extract.

Arrest diagnoses before 6 cm in women undergoing induction should

Arrest diagnoses before 6 cm in women undergoing induction should be made cautiously. (Obstet Gynecol 2012;119:1113-8) DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e318253d7aa”

Quantitative assessment of myocardial blood flow (MBF) from cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) perfusion images appears to offer advantages selleck over qualitative assessment. Currently however, clinical translation is lacking, at least in part due to considerable disparity in quantification methodology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of common methodological differences in CMR voxel-wise measurement of MBF, using position emission tomography (PET) as external validation.

Methods: Eighteen subjects, including 9 with significant coronary artery disease (CAD) and 9 healthy volunteers prospectively underwent perfusion CMR. Comparison was made between MBF quantified using: 1. Calculated contrast agent concentration curves (to correct for signal saturation) Cyclosporin A supplier versus raw signal intensity curves; 2. Midventricular versus basal-ventricular short-axis arterial input function (AIF) extraction; 3. Three different deconvolution approaches; Fermi function parameterization, truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) and first-order Tikhonov

regularization with b-splines. CAD patients also prospectively underwent rubidium-82 PET (median interval 7 days).

Results: MBF was significantly higher when calculated using signal intensity compared to contrast agent concentration curves, and when the AIF was extracted from mid-compared to basal-ventricular images. MBF did not differ significantly between Fermi and Tikhonov, or between Fermi and TVSD deconvolution methods although there was a 5-Fluoracil small difference between TSVD and Tikhonov (0.06 mL/min/g). Agreement between all

deconvolution methods was high. MBF derived using each CMR deconvolution method showed a significant linear relationship (p < 0.001) with PET-derived MBF however each method underestimated MBF compared to PET (by 0.19 to 0.35 mL/min/g).

Conclusions: Variations in more complex methodological factors such as deconvolution method have no greater effect on estimated MBF than simple factors such as AIF location and observer variability. Standardization of the quantification process will aid comparison between studies and may help CMR MBF quantification enter clinical use.”
“Background: Active inflammatory bowel disease, anaemia, iron deficiency and depression, alone or in combination, are known contributing factors of fatigue in inflammatory bowel disease. However, in some patients, fatigue cannot be attributed to known causes. Thiopurines are not a recognized cause.

AIM: To describe the clinical scenario of a series of patients where thiopurines were the likely cause of fatigue.

Additionally, mRNA expression levels of different leptin receptor

Additionally, mRNA expression levels of different leptin receptor (ObR) isoforms and of PTX3 and HAS2 in cumulus cells were quantified, mutually compared and analysed relative to FLI, body mass index, age and number of retrieved oocytes. Expression of all target genes was detected in the cumulus cells, with

relatively low concentrations of ObR-Long. Strong mutual correlations were found between mRNA expression levels of leptin receptor isoforms (P < 0.001) and also between the short isoforms of the leptin receptor and PTX3 (P < 0.001). Although the mean values of the pregnant and non-pregnant groups did not differ significantly for any of the variables, the chance that treatment resulted in ongoing pregnancy was higher with leptin <= 0.5 ng/mg protein compared with concentrations >0.5 ng/mg protein (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the leptin system appears to lay a role in the learn more IVF protocol, whereby signal transduction in cumulus cells occurs predominantly

via the short isoforms of ObR. (C) 2010, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is an extremely rare event. Normally OHSS is seen in the context of IVF. In 2003 a mutation of the FSH receptor (FSHR D567N) was identified for the first time as a cause of spontaneous OHSS. In most FSHR mutations, a hypersensitivity to human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) Caspase inhibitor or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is described. This clinical case presents for the first time two occurrences of spontaneous OHSS in a single woman with a FSHR mutation and two different entities. Pathophysiology of both pregnancies was completely different. During the first pregnancy, elevated HCG

and androgen concentrations led to spontaneous OHSS and finally to miscarriage. The second pregnancy with spontaneous OHSS was dominated by a latent hypothyroidism and normal HCG concentrations and ended in a delivery of a healthy female newborn. Due to the unusual courses of the pregnancies, the study looked for a mutation in the FSHR and surprisingly identified the same mutation previously described. This report confirms for the first time the in-vitro findings in a single clinical case that TSH as well as HCG leads to spontaneous OHSS in patients with FSHR D567N mutation. Hypothyroidism has to be treated or ruled out. (C) 2010, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Men with high sperm DNA damage have a reduced fertility potential. Correlation of specific clinical factors to the degree of sperm DNA damage remains unclear. This retrospective study evaluated the frequency and severity of sperm DNA damage in men with different aetiologies of male factor infertility.

The median (interquartile range, IQR) intake of PCB-153 (marker o

The median (interquartile range, IQR) intake of PCB-153 (marker of ndl-PCBs) was 0.81 (0.77) ng/kg bw/day. For dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs, the median (IQR) intake

was 0.56 (0.37) pg TEQ/kg bw/day. Moreover, 2.3% of the participants had intakes exceeding the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14 pg TEQ/kg bw/week. Multiple regression analysis showed that dietary exposure was positively associated with maternal age, maternal education, weight gain during pregnancy, being a student, and alcohol consumption during pregnancy and negatively associated with pre-pregnancy BMI and smoking. A high dietary exposure to PCB-153 or dl-compounds (TEQ) was mainly explained by the consumption of seagull eggs and/or pate with fish liver and see more Copanlisib roe. Women who according to Norwegian recommendations avoid these food items generally do not have dietary exposure above

the tolerable intake of dioxins and dl-PCBs. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) may stimulate angiogenesis. We examined the safety and therapeutic potential of the HGF plasmid (VM202) in pigs with chronic myocardial ischemia.

Methods and Results: We delivered VM202 or vehicle transendocardially to 4 groups of pigs: vehicle control (n = 9); high-dose VM202 (n 9); low-dose VM202 (n = 3); and normal control (no ischemia; n = 1). Pigs were killed 3, 30, and 60 days after injection. No adverse events were associated with VM202 treatment or delivery. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction indicated that heart injection sites had the highest levels of VM202 (day 3), which became almost undetectable by 30-60 days. Most nontarget sues showed clearance of VM202 plasmid by day 30. Control and VM202-treated pigs did not differ in global functional data. Dobutamine-stressed myocardial-contrast echocardiogram suggested that VM202 may help preserve microvascular perfusion at 30 days; reperfusion velocity in ischemic myocardium decreased significantly in

control (baseline to follow-up, 5.1 +/- 1.9 to 2.7 +/- 1.0; P = .031) but CA4P not in VM202 groups (high-dose: 3.1 +/- 1.1 vs 3.1 +/- 1.5 [P = .511]; low-dose: 3.8 +/- 1.1 vs 3.9 +/- 1.5 [P = .559]). Linear local shortening increased significantly from day 0 to 30 in VM202-treated versus control pigs (5.0 +/- 4.7% vs 9.2 +/- 7.5% vs 0.9 +/- 5.8% [high-dose, low-dose, control, respectively]; P = .021).

Conclusions: Transendocardial delivery of VM202 was safe and may help to preserve microcirculatory perfusion and improve wall motion. (J Cardiac Fail 2011:17:601-611)”
“The large demagnetizing currents in a single-phase line-start permanent magnet motor are generated by a starting and locked rotor condition.

This retrospective study is based on the record of the patients w

This retrospective study is based on the record of the patients who received surgical treatment for mucoceles of the oral cavity with pathologic confirmation at the Department of Dentistry, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Taiwan, between 2000 and 2004. Patients younger than 18 years

were included in this study. The analyzed data included age, gender, site, size, histopathologic findings, surgical methods, and complications. There were a total of 289 patients with mucoceles confirmed by histopathologic examination. As many as 64 patients were younger than 18 years. Of the 64, 34 were girls and 30 were boys; 89.1% of the lesions were in the lower lip; and 48.4% of the lesions were less than 5 mm in diameter. Histopathologic findings showed that all mucoceles were of the extravasation type. As many as 30 patients were Alvocidib cell line treated by carbon dioxide laser vaporization, and two cases recurred (6.67%); 34 patients were treated by surgical excision, and the recurrence rate (5.88%) was

not statistically different for the treatment methods. The laser vaporization has the advantage of less bleeding, no sutures, and saving time, especially suitable for children with oral mucocele. Copyright (C) 2011, Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.”
“. Hepatic fibrosis is an integral element in the progression of chronic liver disease. Elevated hepatic interleukin (IL)-8 is an important contributor to fibrosis in Nirogacestat patients chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Thalidomide Dihydrotestosterone has been

used to reduce liver inflammation and fibrosis in HCV-infected patients, but its impact on HCV replication remains unclear. This study examined the effect of thalidomide on HCV replication in vitro. Results revealed that while thalidomide reduced IL-8 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) activity by 95% and 46% in Huh-7 cells, increasing concentrations of thalidomide correlated with a linear rise in HCV replication (17-fold at 200 mu m). The NF-?B inhibitors, wedelolactone and NF-B activation inhibitor-1, which mimic the actions of thalidomide by preventing phosphorylation and activation of I?B kinase (IKK) and hence block NF-B activity, increased HCV RNA by 18- and 19-fold, respectively. During in vitro HCV replication in Huh-7 cells, we observed a 30% increase in IKKa protein and 55% decrease in NF-B(p65)/RelA protein relative to cellular beta-actin. Ectopic expression of IKKa to enhance the inactive form of IKK in cells undergoing virus replication led to a 13-fold increase in HCV RNA. Conversely, enhanced expression of NF-B(p65)/RelA in infected cells resulted in a 17-fold reduction in HCV RNA. In conclusion, HCV RNA replication was significantly augmented by the inhibition of IKK activation and subsequent NF-B signalling, whereas a restoration of NF-?B activity by the addition of NF-B/RelA markedly reduced HCV replication.

“The purpose of this retrospective study was to find a met

“The purpose of this retrospective study was to find a method of improving the accuracy of fetal birth weight estimation on the basis of traditional ultrasonographic measurements click here of the head, thorax, and femur at term. In this context, we analyzed a novel regression method comparing to existing algorithms.

The delivery records of two hospitals were searched for women who delivered macrosomic infants, and the patients’ medical records were retrospectively reviewed in order to derive clinical and ultrasonographic data at term. A total of 223 patients with macrosomic

infants (birth weight > 4,000 g) were identified. These patients were complemented by data for 212 women who had ultrasound fetal assessments of less than 4,000

g. We used the method of isotonic regression to construct a birth weight prediction function that increases monotonically with each of the input variables and which minimizes the empirical quadratic loss.

A suspicion of macrosomia was based on a history of macrosomia, fundal height, and sonographic weight estimation > 4,000 g. The BIX 01294 mean period between ultrasound weight estimation and delivery was 7.2 days. The ability of the biometric algorithms developed to predict fetal weight at term ranged between a mean absolute error of 312 and 344 g, given a confidence interval of 95%. We demonstrate that predictions of birth weight on the basis of ultrasound data can be improved significantly, if an isotonic regression model is used instead of a linear regression model.

This study demonstrates that ultrasound detection of macrosomia can be improved using the isotonic regression method.”
“Resins with amine functionalities were obtained as a result of chemical modification of low crosslinked terpolymers of glycidyl methacrylate with styrene and divinylbenzene or diethylene glycol dimethacrylate. The

loading of amine groups, swelling in the selected organic solvents, and thermal properties of the resins were studied. FTIR, DSC, TGA, SEM, and stereomicroscopy methods were also applied for exploring buy CHIR-99021 of the resins. The amine functionalized resins were tested as sorbents for uptake of cobalt(II), copper(II), iron(III), and manganese(II) ions from methanol and its mixtures with methylene chloride. The study show that all polyamine functionalized resins uptake quickly Cu(II) ions from methanol solutions. Their ability to remove cobalt(II), iron(III), and manganese(II) ions from solution depended on the mutual compatibility of solvents and resins. It increases clearly when the mixtures of methanol and methylene chloride are applied. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“We examine habitat use by hunting hen harriers Circus cyaneus at three study sites in Scotland to evaluate whether foraging patterns differ between sexes, sites, and stages of the breeding period. We modelled time spent hunting in focal plots as a function of habitat and nest proximity.

Method: A questionnaire about the cultivation of A annua, treatm

Method: A questionnaire about the cultivation of A. annua, treatment of patients, and side-effects observed, was sent to partners of the NGO Anamed in Kenya and Uganda. Some of the respondents were then selected purposively for more in-depth semi-structured interviews.

Results: Eighteen partners in Kenya and 21 in Uganda responded. 49% reported difficulties in growing buy 3-MA the plant,

mainly due to drought. Overall about 3,000 cases of presumed malaria had been treated with A. annua teas in the previous year, of which about 250 were in children and 54 were in women in the first trimester of pregnancy. The commonest problem observed in children was poor compliance due to the bitter taste, which was improved by the addition of sugar or honey. Two miscarriages were reported in pregnant patients. Only four respondents reported side-effects in other patients, the commonest of which was vomiting. 51% of respondents had started using A. annua tea to treat illnesses other than


Conclusions: Local cultivation and preparation of A. annua are feasible where growing conditions are appropriate. CAL-101 supplier Few adverse events were reported even in children and pregnant women. Where ACT is in short supply, it would make sense to save it for young children, while using A. annua infusions to treat older patients who are at lower risk. An ongoing pharmacovigilance system is needed to facilitate reporting of any adverse events.”
“The assessment of patients with pelvic floor dysfunction necessitates a combination of clinical skills and adjunct investigations, including

detailed imaging. This article reviews a variety of static and dynamic imaging modalities available in the field of urogynaecology, with an emphasis on their clinical implication in identifying the structural VX-680 clinical trial and functional causes of pelvic floor disorders. A number of different modalities have been used including X-rays, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Their place and value are discussed with comments on the validity of the various techniques.”
“The aim of this study is to describe the health status, health care received, and their impact on the quality of life in patients with hemophilia. Patients with severe factor VIII or IX deficiency without inhibitors or other chronic disease were enrolled. Turkish version of the Hemophilia-Specific Quality of Life Index (Haemo-QoL) questionnaire was administered to the pediatric patients aged 4 to 16 years and Haem-A-QoL to the adult patients. Joints were evaluated according to the World Federation of Hemophilia (WFH) orthopedic joint scores. Thirty-nine children/adolescents and 31 adult patients were enrolled. Mean Haemo-QoL scores were 39.6 +/- 15.0 for the children and mean Haem-A-QoL 47.4 +/- 14.1 for the adult patients, respectively. Internal consistency reliability was generally sufficient. Total Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was >.

Sun exposed areas are mainly affected, specially the head and nec

Sun exposed areas are mainly affected, specially the head and neck. Immunohistochemical analysis is essential to reach a correct diagnosis. According to the origin of MCC, the tumor expresses both epithelial and neuroendocrine markers. MCC has a propensity for recurrence, regional and distant metastases. Several treatment options selleck inhibitor are available, such as surgical excision

or Moh’s surgery, accompanied by neck dissection or radio and chemotherapy in advanced cases. The present study aims to evaluate the clinical behaviour and the evolution of five cases of this disease that were treated at our institution (reference to 1100000 inhabitants) in the last five years. It is stressed on the bad prognosis of this pathology, which presents high rates of locoregional recurrence, even though the recent advances in radio and chemotherapy.”
“Unintentional reperfusion is considered a complication in various experimental models of focal brain ischemia. In the present study, we evaluated whether short intermittent Crenolanib reperfusion affects ischemic brain damage and blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity in a model of permanent focal ischemia. Focal brain ischemia was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats using

the filament method. A 20-s reperfusion period was allowed 0.5, 2, or 10 min after thread occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. In control animals, the transient reperfusion episode was omitted. The infarct volume and extent of swelling

was examined 24 h after permanent thread occlusion. Immunohistochemical staining for thrombin extravasation was performed. Transient reperfusion early after thread occlusion augmented brain swelling (control, 12.4 +/- 8.5%; reperfusion after 0.5 min, 24.7 +/- 7.0%*; after 2 min, 36.7 +/- 4.8%*; after 10 min, 33.8 +/- 4.9%*; *p<0.01 vs. control) and significantly enhanced leakage MI-503 of the plasma protein thrombin, whereas the ischemic volume was unaffected. Early intermittent reperfusion may be responsible for increased BBB disruption in permanent ischemia. Similar reperfusion episodes during early ischemia sequelae in patients-due to incomplete adherence or distal movements of a clot-may be causative for increased BBB damage, more severe edema, and potentially hemorrhagic transformation.”
“Background: Cleft palate is one of the most common congenital anomalies of the head and neck worldwide. In addition to the evident feeding and growth problems, patients are involved with and suffer from speech, hearing and dental problems. Many surgical techniques and modifications have been advocated to improve functional outcome and aesthetic results, aiming at normal speech, minimizing growth disturbances, and establishing a competent velopharyngeal sphincter. Despite the variety of techniques described for repair of the clefts, there is still a relatively high incidence of postoperative fistula reaching up to 35%.

Immunohistochemistry of tissue sections for GREM1 and BGLAP, the

Immunohistochemistry of tissue sections for GREM1 and BGLAP, the two most prominent differentially expressed genes, confirmed selective detection of GREM1 in articular chondrocytes and that of BGLAP in osteophytic chondrocytes and bone.

Conclusions: Osteophytic and articular chondrocytes significantly

differ in their gene expression pattern. In articular cartilage, a prominent expression of antagonists inhibiting the BMP- and Wnt-pathway may serve to lock and stabilize the permanent chondrocyte phenotype and thus prevent their terminal differentiation. In contrast, osteophytic chondrocytes express genes with roles in the endochondral ossification process, which may account for their transient phenotype. (C) 2011 Osteoarthritis PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor 3 Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We assessed the performance of laboratories in 18 developing countries in analyzing persistent organic pollutants

(POPs) in environmental and human samples, as part of a capacity-building program with the goal of helping laboratories increase proficiency in the types of analyses required for the POPs Global Monitoring Program (GMP) under the Stockholm Convention. We identified several issues that need improvement before KPT-8602 price the laboratories can contribute to the GMP, including technical aspects of POPs analysis, QA/QC issues and laboratory-management problems. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”

A long-acting erythropoiesis-stimulating agent named “”darbepoetin alfa”" (CAS 11096-26-7) was recently developed. Though it is already in use worldwide, especially in western countries, its efficacy and safety for Asian patients have not been well evaluated yet. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of short-term darbepoetin alfa administration for Japanese hemodialysis patients.

Methods: Patients who had undergone maintenance hemodialysis were enrolled in this study. The erythropoiesis-stimulating agent was switched from epoetin alfa (CAS 113427-24-0) to darbepoetin alfa so as to control the hemoglobin IPI-145 clinical trial (Hgb) value between 10 and 12 g/dl. The initial conversion ratio was made according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. The factors relevant to the responsiveness to erythropoiesis were analyzed.

Results: One hundred and fifty-nine patients with a mean age of 67.6 years were enrolled. Two months after switching to darbepoetin alfa, the Hgb value had increased significantly (10.3 +/- 1.2 to 10.6 +/- 1.4 g/dl). Only iron supplementation correlated positively with the change of Hgb. In addition, 14.3% of patients had excess Hgb (Hgb > 12 g/dl) at the end of the study period, but only 5.6% patients at the run-in.