The patients were then randomised to receive either an additional transition-rating or then-test questionnaire at discharge.
Out of 426 patients, 395 (92.7%) completed all questionnaires. Correlation coefficients between indirect and quasi-indirect measures of change ranged from r = .60 to r = .71, compared to r = .37 to r = .48 between indirect and direct measures of change. Correlation coefficients between pre-test and retrospective pre-test (then-test) results ranged from Nutlin-3 research buy r = .69 to r = .82, indicating a low level of recall bias. Pre-test variation accounted for a substantial amount of variance in transition ratings in addition to the post-test scores, indicating a low level of present-state bias.
Conclusions: Indirect and quasi-indirect measurements of change yielded comparable results indicating that recall bias does not necessarily affect quasi-indirect measurement of change. Quasi-indirect measurement might serve as a substitute for pre-post measurement under conditions still to be specified. Transition ratings reflect different aspects of change than indirect and quasi-indirect methods do, but are not necessarily biased by patients’ present states.”
“Objective. To evaluate the relationship between commonly used final needle-tip
positions and subsequent contrast flow and patient-reported pain relief in transforaminal epidural steroid injections (TFESIs).
Design. Retrospective cross-sectional study.
Methods. Medical records of subjects (N = 83) having undergone a TFESI between January 2008 and January 2009 were reviewed to compare TFESIs using the superior-anterior (SA) GM6001 solubility dmso vs. the superior-posterior (SP) quadrant.
Outcome Measures. Outcome measures included ventral and dorsal epidural contrast flow as well
as near-to-complete pain relief as measured by numerical rating scale pain score pre- and post-procedure.
Results. SA TFESIs were associated with greater ventral epidural contrast flow as compared with SP TFESIs (100% vs 61.4%, P < 0.001). SA TFESIs with ventral epidural contrast flow were also associated with flow to a greater number of vertebral levels than SP TFESIs with ventral epidural contrast flow (41% vs 14.8%, P < 0.001). SP TFESIs were associated with greater dorsal epidural contrast flow than SA TFESIs (95.5% vs 43.6%, P < QNZ research buy 0.05). SA TFESIs were also associated with a larger proportion of patients who achieved near-to-complete pain relief (P < 0.05) and greater reduction than SP TFESIs in post-procedure pain score relative to pre-procedure (3.3 vs 1.5, P < 0.01).
Discussion. The evolution of TFESIs must balance both safety and efficacy. The efficacy of SA TFESIs is demonstrated to be superior to that of SP TFESIs with regards to ventral epidural flow and patient-reported pain relief. Further efforts should focus on demonstrating efficacy while optimizing safety.