If the bicrystal is compressed further, dislocations within each

If the bicrystal is compressed further, dislocations within each grain are developed from the defects on the interface between grains. The configuration of the dislocations within grains is more regular when the applied twist angle is smaller. A Ni(111) bicrystal owns the largest amount of maximal stress no matter what the twist angle is. Those of a Ni(110) bicrystal is the second and of a Ni(100) bicrystal is the smallest. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3657948]“
“Class III peroxidases (Prxs) are plant enzymes capable of using H2O2 to oxidize a range of plant secondary KPT-330 metabolites, notably phenolic compounds. These enzymes

are localized in the cell wall or in the vacuole, which is a target for secondary metabolite accumulation, but very little is known about the function of vacuolar Prxs. Tariquidar ic50 Here, the physiological role of the main leaf vacuolar Prx of the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus, CrPrx1, was further investigated namely by studying its capacity to oxidize co-localized phenolic substrates at the expense of H2O2. LC-PAD-MS analysis of the phenols from isolated leaf vacuoles detected the presence of three caffeoylquinic acids and four flavonoids in this organelle. These phenols or similar

compounds were shown to be good CrPrx1 substrates, and the CrPrx1-mediated oxidation of 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid was shown to form a co-operative regenerating cycle with ascorbic acid. Interestingly, more than 90% of total leaf Prx activity was localized in the vacuoles, associated to discrete spots of the tonoplast. Prx activity inside the vacuoles was estimated to be 1809 nkat ml(-1), which, together with the determined concentrations for the putative vacuolar phenolic substrates, indicate a very high H2O2 scavenging capacity, up to 9 mM s(-1). Accordingly, high light conditions, known to increase H2O2 production, induced both phenols and Prx levels. Therefore, it is proposed that the vacuolar couple Prx/secondary metabolites represent an important sink/buffer of H2O2 in green plant cells.”
“Background Evaluation of vascular

variants is crucial for donor assessment prior to living kidney transplantation. Both contrast-enhanced (CE) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and multislice Selleckchem 3-Methyladenine computed tomography (MSCT) are currently used for imaging living kidney donors. Aim of this study was the comparison of the accuracy of MSCT angiography and CE-MRA for the assessment of renal vascular anatomy. Methods Prospective study at a university transplant center including 65 potential living kidney donors. Pre-operative imaging by MSCT angiography and CE-MRA was correlated with the findings of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy in 48 donors. Results MSCT detected significantly more patients and more kidneys with accessory arteries than CE-MRA (p < 0.05). MSCT and CE-MRA performed similarly in identifying venous and ureteral abnormalities.

This diversity allows an ensemble of techniques to substantially

This diversity allows an ensemble of techniques to substantially broaden the biological scope and breadth of predictions. We also find that performing prediction and validation steps iteratively allows us to more completely characterize a biological area of interest. While this study focused on a specific functional area in yeast, Selleckchem SGC-CBP30 many of these observations may be useful

in the contexts of other processes and organisms.”
“A study was conducted to compare the efficacy and complications of TVT and TVT-O.

This study is a prospective randomized trial involving 300 women with primary SUI; 149 received TVT, and 151 patients were treated with TVT-O. At the 1 year follow-up, 141 TVT patients and 147 TVT-O patients (dropout, 5.3% and 2.6%) were evaluated using urodynamic studies, validated questionnaires, and a 1-h pad test.

The mean operating time was shorter in the TVT-O group (p < 0.001). Urinary retention was not significantly different (p > 0.05). Inner thigh discomfort was reported by 5.4% of TVT-O patients. In the TVT and the TVT-O groups, respectively, 90.1% and 88.4% women were objectively cured. The satisfaction with the surgical outcome reflects the significant decrease in the questionnaire

mean symptom scores in both groups. Postoperative de novo urgency was significantly more common in the TVT-O patients (p = 0.015).

The groups showed comparable objective and subjective cure rates.”
“Combinatorial library films of HfO2-TiO2-Y2O3, a high-k dielectric system, grown by pulsed find more laser deposition, exhibit visible boundary lines separating amorphous and crystalline phases. By changing processing space parameters, specifically substrate temperature during deposition,

as well as the composition Acalabrutinib clinical trial of the library film, we are able to manipulate the boundary and hence, the microstructural properties of the film. High-throughput x-ray diffraction and spectroscopic reflectometry are effective tools for measuring the properties of the resulting library films altered via these changes in processing. Electrical measurements confirm that the dielectric constant of the library films is composition and microstructure dependent. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3294607]“
“Midurethral sling (MUS) is now the first line surgical treatment for female stress urinary incontinence. Our aim was to identify predictors for MUS failure.

A total of 1,225 consecutive women with urodynamic urinary stress incontinence had a synthetic MUS (955 retropubic and 270 transobturator) at our institution between 1999 and 2007. Multivariate analysis was performed in order to identify independent risk factors for failure.

At a mean follow-up of 50 +/- 24 months (range, 12-114), the subjective cure rate was 84.7%. Multivariate analysis revealed that BMI > 25 (OR, 2.9), mixed incontinence (OR, 2.4), previous continence surgery (OR, 2.2), intrinsic sphincter deficiency (OR, 1.9), and diabetes mellitus (OR, 1.

Treatment of selected mutants confirmed that TSF and SOC1 are nec

Treatment of selected mutants confirmed that TSF and SOC1 are necessary for the flowering response to BAP, whereas the activation cascade might partially act independently of FD. These experiments provide a mechanistic basis for the role of cytokinins in flowering, and demonstrate that the redundant genes FT and TSF are differently regulated by distinct

floral-inducing signals.”
“The efficacy and safety of combined interferon (IFN) plus ribavirin in patients on long-term dialysis and chronic hepatitis C remains unclear, although a number of small clinical trials have addressed this issue. We evaluated the efficacy and safety HM781-36B nmr of combination antiviral therapy (conventional or pegylated interferon plus ribavirin) in dialysis patients with chronic hepatitis C by performing a systematic review of the literature with a meta-analysis of clinical trials. The primary outcome was sustained virological response (SVR) (as a measure of efficacy); the secondary outcome was drop-out rate (as a measure of tolerability). We used the random effects model of Der Simonian and Laird, with heterogeneity and sensitivity analyses. We identified 10 clinical studies (151 unique patients), one (10%) of which was a controlled clinical trial. Most (97.4%) patients were on long-term haemodialysis. The summary estimate

for SVR and drop-out rate was 56% [95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) 28-84] and 25% (95% CI, 10-40), respectively. The most frequent side Ralimetinib in vivo SCH 900776 mw effects requiring interruption of treatment were anaemia (26%) and heart failure (9%). These results occurred irrespective of type of interferon (conventional or peg-IFN, peg-IFNalfa-2a or alfa-2b), trial design (controlled or cohort study), or clinical characteristics of patients (naive, nonresponders or relapsers). The studies were heterogeneous with regard to SVR and drop-out rate. Combination antiviral therapy (interferon plus ribavirin) gives encouraging results in terms of efficacy

and safety among dialysis patients even if the limited number of patients enrolled in our meta-analysis hampers definitive conclusions.”
“The use of small molecules has great power to dissect biological processes. This study presents the identification and characterisation of an inhibitor of peroxisome matrix protein import. A mini-screen was carried out to identify molecules that cause alteration in peroxisome morphology, or mislocalization of a peroxisome targeted fluorescent reporter protein. A benzimidazole lead compound (LDS-003655) was identified that resulted in reduced GFP fluorescence in peroxisomes and cytosolic GFP accumulation. The effect of the compound was specific to peroxisomes as Golgi bodies, endoplasmic reticulum and the actin cytoskeleton were unaffected even at 25 mu M, whereas peroxisome import via the PTS1 pathway was compromised at 100 nM.

X-ray absorption spectroscopy and diffraction show that epilayers

X-ray absorption spectroscopy and diffraction show that epilayers and films contain MnP grains in the nanometric range with average Mn-P bond lengths very close to those of RO4929097 bulk MnP. The MnP film lattice parameters are almost identical to bulk values (within 0.5%) and the main crystallographic preferential orientations are those also present in the epilayers but with different relative populations. Overall the local structures of all MnP forms are very similar, except for indications of more disorder in the nanocrystals. Such combined changes of T(N) and T(C) are in apparent

contradiction with the known response of bulk MnP to strains induced by hydrostatic, uniaxial or chemical pressure. We conclude that the differences in the low temperature magnetic behavior are most probably originated by local structural disorder at the surface of the nanostructures and by finite size effects. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3580270]“
“When

two ferromagnetic layers have a common resonance frequency, the usual spin-pumping broadening may be reduced by dynamic exchange coupling. Utilizing BMS202 inhibitor the antiferromagnetic coupling between Co and Gd, we explore the change in ferromagnetic resonance accompanying a spontaneous transition from parallel to antiparallel magnetic alignment of two Co films below the compensation temperature T-comp. Above T-comp, the data are consistent with conventional models. However, a rapid doubling of magnetic damping accompanies the realignment,

which is reminiscent of resistivity changes in giant magnetoresistance. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3592298]“
“Meningococcal meningitis and septicemia are a persistent public health concern owing to the associated mortality and devastating long-term sequelae. People of all ages may be affected, with the disease burden being higher in at-risk groups. Vaccination is the most rational approach to the prevention of invasive meningococcal disease. A novel quadrivalent meningococcal (Men) serogroup A, C, W-135 and Y polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM), has recently been licensed for use in individuals aged at least Dihydrotestosterone datasheet 11 years old in the USA, Canada and Europe. One dose of MenACWY-CRM is well tolerated, and induces robust immunity to all constituent vaccine serogroups in 11-65 year old individuals. MenACWY-CRM was found to be noninferior to the quadrivalent meningococcal ACWY-diphtheria toxoid glycoconjugate vaccine, which is also licensed in the USA and Canada. In Europe, MenACWY-CRM is the first quadrivalent meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccine available to provide broader protection against Neissena meningitidis serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y.”
“Within the second-order perturbation approximation, the physical process of cumulative second-harmonic generation by the primary Lamb wave propagation has been investigated in the time domain.

In male individuals, BPH (OR 3 900; 95% Cl: 1 890-8 049) was anot

In male individuals, BPH (OR 3.900; 95% Cl: 1.890-8.049) was another risk factor. Gender was not found to be associated with nocturia. Increasing episodes of nocturia (regression coefficient:

-2.564; 95% Cl: -3.08 to -2.049) and decreasing total sleeping hours (regression coefficient: 1.738; 95% Cl: 0.948-2.527) were independent factors predicting a significantly lower N-QOL score. Conclusions: Hypertension, diabetes and BPH are associated with nocturia, suggesting that multiple approaches are needed when treating patients with nocturia. Nocturia has a significant impact on the nocturia-related quality of life when the patient has 2 or more episodes PF-00299804 cell line per night. Copyright (c) 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“The levels of serum enzymes and haemolytic effects of overdose of halofantrine hydrochloride were determined in adult male rats. The animals were grouped GPCR Compound Library into four groups and were orally administered halofantine hydrochloride in normal saline: 0 mg/kg (control), 4 mg/kg (under-dose), 8 mg/kg (normal dose) and 16 mg/kg (overdose) in three repeated doses at 6 h interval. The changes in serum enzyme levels were determined by monitoring the levels alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total serum albumin. The haemolytic effect of the drug was monitored by the changes in Packed Cell Volume (PCV), total bilirubin and direct

bilirubin. There were significant increases in the ALT, AST and ALP levels in both the normal dose and overdose when compared with the control. The reduction in total serum albumin in normal dose and overdose was also significant (p < 0.05). The result also revealed a significant decrease in PCV and increase in total and direct bilrubin (p < 0.05) in the overdose groups. The result is indicative of the hepatotoxicity and haemotoxicity

of halofantrine hydrochloride VX-680 solubility dmso in normal dose and overdose conditions.”
“The capacity of hydrogen storage in alkali metal (Li, Na, or K), alkaline-earth metal (Be, Mg, or Ca), or Ti decorated borazine has been investigated by using the first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. Our results indicated that alkali metals could bind strongly to the inorganic molecule borazine and, especially, Li decorated borazine exhibits the highest hydrogen storage capacity up to 10.4 wt % theoretically. The adsorption energies of hydrogen molecules are in the range of -0.10 similar to-0.15 eV/H(2) (-0.23 similar to-0.28 eV/H(2) for local density approximation calculation) which are acceptable for reversible H(2) adsorption/desorption near ambient temperature. We also found that the hydrogen storage capacity of Ti decorated borazine is about 7.2 wt %, less than that of the Li decorated system, but the adsorption energies are in the range of -0.16 similar to-0.

orellana possess bioactive compounds “
“Elevated tissue leve

orellana possess bioactive compounds.”
“Elevated tissue levels of prostaglandin E-2, produced by cyclooxygenase

(COX), are an early event in colorectal cancer (CRC). Data suggest the efficacy of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as cancer preventives, in the inhibition of COX activity; however, side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory pose unacceptable limitations. Ginger has been reported to have anti-inflammatory activities with significant CRC preventive potential. We investigated whether consumption of 2.0 g ginger daily regulated the level of two key enzymes BGJ398 in vitro that control prostaglandin E-2 production, COX-1 and NAD(+)-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH). Thirty participants at normal and 20 participants at increased risk for CRC were randomized and given 2.0 g/day ginger or placebo for 28 days. Flexible sigmoidoscopy was used to obtain colon biopsies at baseline and the end of the study. Tissue levels of COX-1 and 15-PGDH were assessed using western blotting. After ginger consumption, participants at increased risk for CRC VX-809 cell line had a significantly reduced colonic COX-1 protein level (23.8 +/- 41%) compared with the placebo group (18.9 +/- 52%; P=0.03). Protein levels of 15-PGDH in the colon were unchanged.

In participants who were at normal risk for CRC, neither protein levels of COX-1 nor 15-PGDH in the colon were altered by ginger consumption. Ginger significantly lowered COX-1 protein expression in participants at increased risk for CRC but not in those at normal risk for CRC. Ginger did not alter 15-PGDH protein expression in either increased

or normal-risk participants. Further investigation, in larger studies with a longer ginger intervention, is needed to examine the ability of ginger to impact tissue levels of prostaglandin. (C) 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Modern treatment of chronically photodamaged skin provides MEK activity new, minimally invasive methods for laser intervention, using fractional, non-ablative thermal energy for an induction of dermal remodeling. The clinical efficacy coupled with a minimum “”down time”" for the patient has directed the development of fractional ablative laser systems. Recently introduced systems are based on C0(2) and heated Er:YAG laser systems. The clinical efficacy has been tested on one prototype each and verified their effects at a microscopic level. Initial reports suggest the results are comparable to those achieved with fractional ablative systems. We review the current possibilities incorporating our personal experience. Systematic investigations of clinical outcomes with various system settings are still needed. The possible combination of ablative and non-ablative fractional technology may also lead to increased efficacy and safety of the procedure.

The domain structure transformed into a characteristic 90 degrees

The domain structure transformed into a characteristic 90 degrees in-plane nanostripe domain structure under intense electron irradiation. In particular, an unconventional triangular 90 degrees in-plane

nanostripe domain structure was observed. Polarization analysis suggests the existence of an incomplete or half tetradomain vortex at the boundary of the triangular domain structure. Together with the help of phase-field simulations using time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations, it is suggested that such a domain structure is created by an anisotropic in-plane electric field, which is plausibly induced by an anisotropic interaction of the incident electron beam with the ferroelectric material. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3487481]“
“Eutypa dieback is a vascular disease that Autophagy animal study may severely affect vineyards throughout the world. In the present work, microarrays were made in order (i) to improve our knowledge of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon) responses to Eutypa lata, the causal agent of Eutypa dieback; and (ii) to identify genes

that may prevent symptom development. Qiagen/Operon grapevine microarrays comprising 14 500 probes were used to compare, under three experimental conditions (in vitro, in the greenhouse, and in the vineyard), foliar material of infected symptomatic plants (S(+)R(+)), infected asymptomatic plants (S(-)R(+)), and healthy plants (S(-)R(-)). These plants were characterized by symptom notation after natural (vineyard) selleck products or experimental (in vitro and greenhouse)

infection, re-isolation of the fungus located in the lignified parts, and the formal identification of E. lata mycelium by PCR. Semi-quantitative real-time PCR experiments were run to confirm the expression of some genes of interest in response to E. lata. Their expression profiles were also studied in response to other grapevine pathogens (Erysiphe Pinometostat concentration necator, Plasmopara viticola, and Botrytis cinerea). (i) Five functional categories of genes, that is those involved in metabolism, defence reactions, interaction with the environment, transport, and transcription, were up-regulated in S(+)R(+) plants compared with S(-)R(-) plants. These genes, which cannot prevent infection and symptom development, are not specific since they were also up-regulated after infection by powdery mildew, downy mildew, and black rot. (ii) Most of the genes that may prevent symptom development are associated with the light phase of photosynthesis. This finding is discussed in the context of previous data on the mode of action of eutypin and the polypeptide fraction secreted by Eutypa.”
“Introduction:

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of in vitro hemodilution with 6% HES (130/0.4) solution on thrombelastograph (R) (TEG) parameters in whole blood samples from patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD).

Methods:

Enrollment consisted of 95 patients with ESLD undergoing liver transplantation.

Furthermore, hierarchical clustering and principal component anal

Furthermore, hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis demonstrated that changed metabolites in OGTT naturally grouped according to the activities of the System A and L amino acid transporters,

the osmolyte carrier SLC6A12, and the mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate transporter SLC25A13. Comparison Milciclib clinical trial between NGT and IGT groups supported blunted glucose- and/or insulin-stimulated activities in the IGT group. Using unbiased pathway models, we offer evidence supporting the important role of solute carriers in the physiologic response to glucose challenge and conclude that carrier activities are reflected in individual metabolite profiles of perturbation experiments. Given the involvement of transporters in human disease, metabolite profiling may contribute to improved disease classification via the interrogation of specific C59 in vitro transporter activities.”
“Background and aim: Glycemic index (GI) and Glycemic Load (GL) are parameters of carbohydrate bioavailability able to influence risk of chronic diseases. GL can

be lowered either by reducing carbohydrate intake or by reducing the GI of the carbohydrate moiety of a mixed meal. These two approaches might have a different impact on Dietary-Induced Thermogenesis (DIT) and preferential substrate oxidation in the postprandial period, which are variables known to be involved in the regulation of body weight and body composition. This dietary, crossover intervention trial was designed to evaluate the effect on DIT and Respiratory Quotient (RQ) of three isocaloric breakfasts different in GI and/or GL (high

GI and high GL [HGI-HGL] vs. low GI and low GL [LGI-LGL]; vs. high GI and low GL [HGI-LGL]) followed by a standard meal.

Methods and results: RQ and DIT were measured in 16 lean young males by indirect calorimetry for selleck screening library 8 h. DIT resulted significantly higher after the LGI-LGL compared to the HGI-HGL breakfast (p < 0.05). Postprandial changes in RQ differed among all breakfasts (p < 0.001). RQ increased from baseline after the two breakfasts with highest carbohydrate content and significantly more after the HGI-HGL than after the LGI-LGL (p < 0.02), whereas it decreased after the HGI-LGL breakfast, which contained a higher amount of fat.

Conclusions: Reducing the GL of a meal by reducing GI seems an effective strategy to increase energy expenditure while maintaining a good rate of lipid oxidation. This might be related to different profiles of postprandial hormones affecting substrate oxidation. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) can be a valuable treatment for heart failure. However, there are high nonresponse rates using current CRT inclusion criteria.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) in predicting response to CRT.

For the generation of the functional units, we used ring-opening

For the generation of the functional units, we used ring-opening metathesis polymerization and free-radical polymerization. The produced systems Sotrastaurin datasheet were tested for their ability to bind or

repel proteins as exemplified by the use of the serine protease trypsin, which was used to catalyze the hydrolysis of N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester (BAEE). Finally, the monolith-immobilized trypsin systems were used for enzymatic peptide synthesis purposes, such as the acyl transfer of BAEE to amino acid amides. Complementarily, we used an immobilized trypsin variant, which we additionally subjected to on-column chemical modification with succinic anhydride to alter its synthetic properties. (C) 2010 https://www.selleckchem.com/products/gw3965.html Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 119: 14501458, 2011″
“Biosensors typically operate in liquid media for detection of biomarkers and suffer from fouling resulting from nonspecific binding of protein molecules to the device surface. In the current work, using a coupled field finite element fluid-structure interaction simulation, we have identified that fluid

motion induced by high intensity sound waves, such as those propagating in these sensors, can lead to the efficient removal of the nonspecifically bound proteins thereby eliminating sensor fouling. We present a computational analysis of the acoustic-streaming phenomenon induced biofouling elimination by surface acoustic-waves (SAWs) propagating on a lithium niobate piezoelectric crystal. The transient solutions generated from the developed coupled field fluid solid interaction model are utilized to predict trends in acoustic-streaming induced forces for varying design parameters such as voltage intensity, device frequency, fluid viscosity, and density. We utilize these model predictions to compute the various interaction forces involved and thereby identify the possible mechanisms for removal of nonspecifically-bound proteins. For the range of sensor find more operating conditions simulated, our study indicates that the SAW motion acts as a body force to overcome the adhesive forces of the fouling proteins to the device surface

whereas the acoustic-streaming induced hydrodynamic forces prevent their reattachment. The streaming velocity fields computed using the finite element models in conjunction with the proposed particle removal mechanism were used to identify the optimum conditions that lead to improved removal efficiency. We show that it is possible to tune operational parameters such as device frequency and input voltage to achieve effective elimination of biofouling proteins in typical biosensing media. Our simulation results agree well with previously reported experimental observations. The findings of this work have significant implications in designing reusable, selective, and highly sensitive biosensors. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.

From all three animal species, the adipogenic and osteogenic diff

From all three animal species, the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation potential of ASCs cultured with different media was analyzed in vitro. Cell proliferation analysis showed a population doubling time of 48-68 h for canine cells, 54-65 h for porcine cells and 54-70 h for

equine cells, expanded in different media. Except for porcine ASCs, cells cultured in media supplemented with FBS grew faster than cells expanded in UC medium with UltroserG. Yet, all cells maintained their potential to differentiate into adipocytes and osteoblasts. UltraCulture medium containing UltroserG can for all examined species be recommended if FBS needs to be avoided in the expansion of donor-derived (stem) cells. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A Belinostat supplier study was performed to assess the satisfaction rate (SR) after transobturator procedures in pad negative women.

All patients were asked to complete Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI) questionnaire.

SR after the procedure was estimated by means of VAS scale. Two groups were formed (group 0, 100% SR; group 1, < 100% SR) and compared by means of Student t test and Chi-square test. Predictors of SR were tested by linear regression model.

Data was available for 168 women. The mean follow-up was 18.4 weeks, a negative pad test was observed in 153 patients learn more (91.1%). Less than 100% SR was observed in 83 (54.2%) women with negative pad test. SR was significantly predicted by total UDI

and irritative UDI score after surgery (p < 0.001), the later bearing also greatest negative impact on QoL (p < 0.001).

Irritative symptoms are the main reason for dissatisfaction of patients with surgical outcome.”
“Fast phase transition processes on Ge2Sb2Te5 film CH5424802 mouse induced by picosecond laser pulses were studied using time-resolved reflectivity measurements. It was found that after picosecond laser pulse priming, reversible switching could be occurred upon picosecond laser pulse irradiation with the same well-chosen fluence. This is very different from general knowledge that reversible phase change process will be induced by laser pulses with different powers; that is, amorphization process needs much higher fluence than crystallization process. The possible mechanism was discussed qualitatively by a melting-cooling model. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3222851]“
“This report details a bubble echocardiographic study carried out during the surgical treatment of a congenital single extrahepatic portosystemic shunt (PSS) in a Labrador Retriever. After celiotomy, agitated saline was injected through a jejunal vein and microbubbles appeared rapidly in the right cardiac chambers. The test confirmed the presence of a PSS, helping the surgeon to identify the vessel concerned and to rule out a second shunt.