This outbreak highlights the importance of preventing raw-produce

This outbreak highlights the importance of preventing raw-produce contamination.”
“Since its discovery, human parvovirus B19

(B19V), now termed erythrovirus, has been associated with many clinical situations (neurological and myocardium infections, persistent B19V DNAemia) in addition to the prototype clinical manifestations, i.e., erythema infectiosum and erythroblastopenia crisis. In 2002, the use of new molecular tools led to the characterization of three different genotypes of human B19 erythrovirus. Although the genomic organization is conserved, the geographic distribution of the different genotypes varies worldwide, and the nucleotidic divergences can impact the molecular diagnosis of B19 virus infection. The cell cycle of the buy MRT67307 virus remains partially unresolved; however, recent studies have shed light on the mechanism of cell entry and the interactions of B19V proteins with apoptosis pathways.”
“BACKGROUND

The risk of cardiovascular events among patients with

atrial fibrillation is high. We evaluated whether irbesartan, an angiotensin-receptor blocker, would reduce this risk.

METHODS

We randomly assigned patients with a history of risk factors for stroke and a systolic blood pressure of at least 110 mm Hg to receive either irbesartan at a target dose of 300 mg once daily or double-blind placebo. These patients were already enrolled in one of two trials (of clopidogrel plus aspirin versus aspirin alone or versus oral anticoagulants). The first coprimary outcome was stroke, myocardial infarction, or death from vascular causes; the second was this Smad inhibitor composite outcome plus hospitalization for heart failure.

RESULTS

A LY294002 total of 9016 patients were enrolled and followed for a mean of 4.1 years. The mean reduction in systolic blood pressure was 2.9 mm Hg greater in the irbesartan group than in the placebo group, and the mean reduction in

diastolic blood pressure was 1.9 mm Hg greater. The first coprimary outcome occurred at a rate of 5.4% per 100 person-years in both groups (hazard ratio with irbesartan, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.91 to 1.08; P = 0.85). The second coprimary outcome occurred at a rate of 7.3% per 100 person-years among patients receiving irbesartan and 7.7% per 100 person-years among patients receiving placebo (hazard ratio, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.02; P = 0.12). The rates of first hospitalization for heart failure (a prespecified secondary outcome) were 2.7% per 100 person-years among patients receiving irbesartan and 3.2% per 100 person-years among patients receiving placebo (hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.98). Among patients who were in sinus rhythm at baseline, there was no benefit of irbesartan in preventing hospitalization for atrial fibrillation or atrial fibrillation recorded on 12-lead electrocardiography, nor was there a benefit in a subgroup that underwent transtelephonic monitoring.

6% and 84 8%, respectively, in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) ce

6% and 84.8%, respectively, in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells, while only pS(M641) significantly

decreased CPE, compared to the control group. These results indicated that the M gene 641 and 827 sites represent potential antiviral therapy targets, and RNAi targeting of the M gene could not only represent an effective treatment in Newcastle disease but also aid selleck inhibitor as a method for studying the replication of NDV. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Mitochondrial dysfunction has been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson s disease (PD) Supportive of this hypothesis several genetic variants that regulate mitochondrial function and homeostasis have been described to alter PD susceptibility A recent report demonstrated association of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the mitochondrial translation initiation factor 3 (MTIF3) gene with PD risk The protein encoded by this nuclear gene is essential for initiation complex formation on the mitochondrial 55S ribosome and regulates translation of proteins within the mitochondria Changes in the function or expression of the MTIF3 protein may result in altered mitochondrial function ATP FRAX597 production or formation of reactive oxygen

species thereby affecting susceptibility to PD We examined the association of rs7669 with sporadic PD in three Caucasian case control series (n = 2434) A significant association was observed in the largest series (Norwegian n = 1650) when comparing CC vs CT/TT genotypes with the Irish and US series having a similar but non-significant trend The combined series also revealed an association with risk of PD (P = 0 01) supporting the possible involvement of this gene in PD etiology Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd”
“Thanks to new technologies which enable rapid and unbiased screening for viral nucleic acids in clinical specimens, an impressive number of previously unknown viruses have recently been discovered. Two research groups independently identified a novel negative-strand RNA virus, now designated avian bornavirus (ABV), in parrots with proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a severe lymphoplasmacytic ganglioneuritis of the

gastrointestinal tract of psittacine birds that is frequently accompanied by encephalomyelitis. Since its discovery, ABV has been PI3K inhibitor detected worldwide in many captive parrots and in one canary with PDD. ABV induced a PDD-like disease in experimentally infected cockatiels, strongly suggesting that ABV is highly pathogenic in psittacine birds. Until the discovery of ABV, the Bornaviridae family consisted of a single species, classical Borna disease virus (BDV), which is the causative agent of a progressive neurological disorder that affects primarily horses, sheep, and some other farm animals in central Europe. Although ABV and BDV share many biological features, there exist several interesting differences, which are discussed in this review.

As gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is an important

As gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is an important tool in

selleck compound the diagnosis and surveillance of urological diseases, the severe consequences of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis demand that practicing urologists understand and know its history and treatment strategies.

Conclusions: This review provides clarification of the gadolinium based contrast agent characteristics, tissue interactions that lead to the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, prevention possibilities and available treatment options.”
“Animal studies point to a role of estrogen in explaining gender differences in striatal dopaminergic functioning, but evidence from human studies is still lacking. Given that dopamine is crucial for controlling and organizing

goal-directed behavior, estrogen may have a specific impact on cognitive control functions, such as the inhibition of prepotent responses. We compared the efficiency of inhibitory control (as measured by the stop-signal task) GSK621 in young women across the three phases of their menstrual cycle (salivary estradiol and progesterone concentrations were assessed) and in young men. Women were less efficient in inhibiting prepotent responses in their follicular phase, which is associated with higher estradiol levels and with higher dopamine turnover rates, than in their luteal or menstruation phase. Likewise, women showed less efficient inhibitory control than men in their follicular phase but not in their luteal or menstruation phase. Our results are consistent with models assuming that the over-supply

of striatal dopamine in the follicular phase weakens inhibitory pathways, Cyclooxygenase (COX) thus leading to enhanced competition between responses. We conclude that gender differences in response inhibition are variable and state dependent but not structural. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: We hypothesized that from 1999 to 2008 patient and tumor selection criteria, perioperative outcomes, complications and renal function outcomes may have evolved significantly in 800 laparoscopic partial nephrectomies.

Materials and Methods: We retrospectively divided 800 patients who underwent laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for tumor, as done by 1 surgeon, into 3 chronologic eras, including era 1-276 from September 1999 to December 2003, era 2-289 from January 2004 to December 2006 and era 3-235 from January 2007 through November 2008. We evaluated prospectively collected data on tumor characteristics, perioperative outcomes and renal function outcomes.

Results: When comparing eras I to 3, tumors in the most recent era were larger, more commonly 4 cm or greater, and central, and less often peripheral and less than 4 cm (each p value significant). Despite increasing tumor complexity warm ischemia time was shorter (31.9, 31.6 and 14.4 minutes, respectively, p<0.

Older patients preferred pain relief/comfort as a treatment goal,

Older patients preferred pain relief/comfort as a treatment goal, but received fewer prescriptions for opioids. Whereas provider-initiated selleck chemical communication with patients/families was positively associated with severity of illness, patient/family-initiated

communication was associated with patient psychosocial attributes and care perspectives. Satisfaction with care was inversely associated with reports of pain. Symptom distress was positively associated with subsequent opioid prescriptions and hospitalizations.

Conclusions. Our results help to explain the role of patients’ psychosocial attributes, care perspectives, and preferences in subsequent care practices during the early treatment phase for late-stage cancer. Age-related differences in patient wellbeing and care perspectives suggest a role for age-sensitive interventions

in the treatment of advanced cancer patients.”
“Study aims. -The topography of the peaks of tibial.-nerve somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) varies among healthy subjects, most likely because of differences in position and orientation of their cortical generator(s). Therefore, amplitude estimation with a standard one- or two-channel derivation is likely to be inaccurate and might partly cause the low sensitivity of SEP amplitude to pathological selleck chemicals changes. In this study, we investigate whether 128-channel tibiat-nerve SEP recordings can improve amplitude estimation and reduce the coefficient of variation.

Methods. -We recorded tibial-nerve SEPs using a 128-channel. EEG system in 48 healthy subjects aged 20 to 70 years (47 provided analyzable data). We compared P39, N50, and P60 amplitudes obtained with a 128-channel analysis method (based on butterfly plots and spatial topographies) with those obtained using a one-channel conventional configuration and analysis. Scalp and earlobe references were compared.

Results. -Tibial-nerve SEP amplitudes obtained with the 128-channel method were significantly higher as compared clonidine to the one-channel

conventional method. Consequently, the coefficient of variation was lower for the 128-channel method. In addition, in both methods, the N50-peak amptitude was sometimes hard to identify, because of its low amplitude. Besides, in some subjects, the N50 peak, as obtained with the conventional method, rather seemed to be a period between two positivities rather than an activation peak on itself.

Conclusions. -The 128-channel method can measure tibial.-nerve SEP amplitude more accurately and might therefore be more sensitive to pathological changes. Our results indicate that the N50 component is less useful for clinical practice. (c) 2008 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Background. We examined whether questions addressing the effect of pain on day-to-day function add unique information to the standardized verbal descriptor scale for pain severity in nursing homes (NHs).

Methods.

The combination of all times was reflected in the total care time

The combination of all times was reflected in the total care time (TCT) for each procedure. We recorded all physician fees collected for each procedure.

This total fee collected for each procedure was then divided by the TCT to determine the procedure-specific payment per unit time. All similar procedures were grouped together and the average reimbursement per procedure was reported.

Results: Data was collected on all 1103 procedures performed during this period. Insurance carrier distribution was 75% Medicare and 25% private insurance. The average reimbursement was $316/hour for open procedures and $556/hour for endovascular. Higher reimbursing procedures included visceral endovascular procedures ($701/hour) and caval filters ($751/hour). Lower reimbursing procedures included lower extremity bypass ($292/hour), dialysis access ($268/hour) and selleck chemical lower extremity amputations ($223/hour). Striking was the difference between Selleck PSI-7977 payment based on approach for similar conditions. Reimbursement for carotid stent vs carotid endarterectomy was $643/hour vs $383/hour, endovascular abdominal

aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair vs open $593/hour vs $359/hour.

Conclusion: This unique study demonstrates a “”real world”" experience of reimbursement per unit time and raises questions as to the validity of the RBRVS process. The disparity between payments for open and endovascular repair of similar conditions are typical of this inequality. These data do

not reflect the intangible time of operative planning, administrative matters, or overhead, and these factors must be considered when interpreting this data. Regardless, this study suggests that capturing detailed financial data is possible and is a more accurate source for future discussions on reimbursement. (J Vasc Surg 2010;52:1094-9.)”
“The non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic capable of inducing analgesia, is known to have psychotomimetic actions, but the Aldol condensation detailed mechanisms remain unclear because of its complex properties. The present study elucidated neural mechanisms of the effect of ketamine, at doses that exert psychotomimetic effects without anesthetic and analgesic effects, by evaluating cortical synaptic responses vivo. Systemic administration (i.p.) of low (1 and 5 mg/kg), subanesthetic (25 mg/kg) and anesthetic (100 mg/kg) doses of ketamine dose-dependently decreased hippocampal stimulation-evoked potential in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in freely moving rats. The behavioral analysis assessed by prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle response showed that ketamine (5 and 25 mg/kg, i.p.) produced PPI deficit. Thus, the psychotomimetic effects observed in ketamine-treated groups (5 and 25 mg/kg, i.p.) are associated with the induction of synaptic depression in the hippocampus-mPFC neural pathway.

This suggests the

presence of inhibitory

This suggests the

presence of inhibitory DAPT solubility dmso GABAergic modulation of distal brain regions in response to chronic epileptiform activity. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Binding, washing and elution conditions for MEP HyperCel chromatography were examined using two conditioned media (CM) containing monoclonal antibodies (humanized IgG1) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). Monoclonal antibodies derived from mammalian expression system bound to the column without pretreatment, although a majority of contaminating proteins present in the CM also showed binding. Inorganic salts, ethanol and glycerol were ineffective in eluting proteins under the conditions examined, suggesting that electrostatic or hydrophobic interactions are not a major factor for antibody binding to the

MEP resin. Ethylene glycol, 2-propanol, urea and arginine were effective, to varying degrees, in elution of the bound proteins. The bound contaminating proteins and BSA were effectively eluted with ethylene glycol and the bound antibodies were finally eluted with aqueous arginine solutions at neutral pH. MEP showed selectivity toward BSA and hence utility for removing BSA from the samples. Interestingly. Fc-fusion proteins derived from silkworm larvae showed no detectable binding. Serum proteins present in silkworm larvae strongly competed with the Fc-fusion proteins and monoclonal antibody for binding to MEP resin, while the same Fc-fusion proteins can be readily purified in one-step by Protein-A resin, again confirming weak selectivity of the MEP resin. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“In this study, we hypothesized Selleckchem CH5183284 that steady pink noise is able to change the complexity of brain activities into a characteristic level and it might have significant effect on improving sleep stability.

First, we carried out the brain synchronization test in which electroencephalogram (EEG) signals of 6 subjects were recorded. The whole experiment procedure was divided into 5 blocks in the alternative feeding process of 10-min quiet and 10-min noise. After the complexity analysis of fractal dimension,

we found that the complexity of the EEG signals decreased with the introduction of the pink noise exposure, showing the brain waves tended to synchronize with the pink noise induction to reach a PTK6 low level.

For the sleep quality experiment, 40 subjects were recruited the group of nocturnal sleep experiment and 10 participants were chosen for nap test. Each subjects slept for two consecutive experimental periods, of which one is pink noise exposed and the other is quiet. For both nocturnal sleep and nap tests, the results in the noise exposure group showed significant enhancement in the percentage of stable sleep time compared to the control group based on the analysis of electrocardiography (ECG) signal with cardiopulmonary coupling approach.

Methods: All 1346 renal transplant procedures performed between 1

Methods: All 1346 renal transplant procedures performed between 1 January 1967 and 31 December 2006 were reviewed. Clinical data, histological reports and outcomes were available from a prospectively www.selleckchem.com/products/icg-001.html recorded database. The study period was divided into four decades to assess the changes in renal transplantation over time.

Results: Significant changes that have occurred include an increase in donor and recipient ages, a greater proportion of recipients with diabetic nephropathy, a longer wait before the first transplant procedure, a fall in the incidence and impact of acute rejection, a smaller

proportion of deaths due to cardiovascular disease, (P 0.001 for all) and a trend to increased deaths from malignancy (P 0.06) over time. In multivariate analysis, death censored graft survival was significantly influenced by the era of transplantation, selleck chemicals donor and recipient ages, living vs. deceased

donor status, and histological evidence of acute rejection, chronic allograft nephropathy, or disease recurrence. Significant factors in recipient survival were the era of transplantation, recipient age, a primary renal diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy or unspecified chronic renal failure, and biopsy proven acute rejection.

Conclusions: There have been major changes in the clinical practice related to renal transplantation over the past four decades; some have been beneficial and others detrimental to survival. Regular review of outcomes is essential to guide renal services development and maximize graft and recipient survival.”
“In synesthesia, certain

stimuli to one sensory modality lead to sensory perception in another unstimulated modality. In addition to other models, a two-stage model is discussed to explain this phenomenon, ifoxetine which combines two previously formulated hypotheses regarding synesthesia: direct cross-activation and hyperbinding. The direct cross-activation model postulates that direct connections between sensory-specific areas are responsible for co-activation and synesthetic perception. The hyperbinding hypothesis suggests that the inducing stimulus and the synesthetic sensation are coupled by a sensory nexus area, which may be located in the parietal cortex. This latter hypothesis is compatible with the disinhibited feedback model, which suggests unusual feedback from multimodal convergence areas as the cause of synesthesia. In this study, the relevance of these models was tested in a group (n = 1 4) of auditory-visual synesthetes by performing a functional connectivity analysis on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Different simple and complex sounds were used as stimuli, and functionally defined seed areas in the bilateral auditory cortex (AC) and the left inferior parietal cortex (IPC) were used for the connectivity calculations. We found no differences in the connectivity of the AC and the visual areas between synesthetes and controls.

gov, http://controlled-trials com and the Cochrane review databas

gov, http://controlled-trials.com and the Cochrane review database using a predefined search strategy.

Results: One hundred forty-one patients from 27 articles were included. Interventions ranged from single (n = 104, 74%), staged (n = 26, 18%) to simultaneous procedures (n = 11, 8%). The largest cohort of patients was treated by carotid

endarterectomy R428 order alone (n = 92, 66%). The majority of patients presented with a symptomatic carotid stenosis and an asymptomatic ipsilateral intracranial aneurysm (n = 70, 50%). Five subarachnoid hemorrhages occurred (4% [ 5/140], three within 30 days of the procedure and two thereafter) of which two were fatal. All five occurred in patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy as a single procedure (5%). Two of the five patients

presented with ruptured posterior communicating artery aneurysms.

Conclusions: Published reports of perioperative aneurysm rupture are rare in individuals with tandem carotid stenosis and intracranial aneurysms. This is the first analysis of all published cases. However, it is limited by the small number of studies and the possible underreporting due to publication bias and underdiagnosis where angiography was not performed. Although we www.selleckchem.com/products/azd9291.html report a low incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage, analysis of registry data with a larger cohort is warranted to confirm these findings. (J Vasc Surg 2012;56:1739-47.)”
“African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a large double-stranded DNA virus responsible for a lethal pig disease, to which no vaccine has ever been obtained. Its Cell Penetrating Peptide genome encodes a number of proteins involved in virus survival and transmission in its hosts, in particular proteins that inhibit signaling pathways in infected

macrophages and, thus, interfere with the host’s innate immune response. A recently identified novel ASFV viral protein (pI329L) was found to inhibit the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) signaling pathway, TLR3 being a crucial “”danger detector.”" pI329L has been predicted to be a transmembrane protein containing extracellular putative leucine-rich repeats similar to TLR3, suggesting that pI329L might act as a TLR3 decoy. To explore this idea, we used comparative modeling and other structure prediction protocols to propose (a) a model for the TLR3-Toll-interleukin-1 receptor homodimer and (b) a structural fold for pI329L, detailed at atomistic level for its cytoplasmic domain. As this later domain shares only remote sequence relationships with the available TLR3 templates, a more complex modeling strategy was employed that combines the iterative implementation of (multi)threading/assembly/refinement (I-TASSER) structural prediction with expertise-guided posterior refinement. The final pI329L model presents a plausible fold, good structural quality, is consistent with the available experimental data, and it corroborates our hypothesis of pI329L being a TLR3 antagonist.

p62 may serve as a proteotoxic stress sensor, promote segregation

p62 may serve as a proteotoxic stress sensor, promote segregation and degradation of misfolded proteins by autophagy, and mediate the cross talk between the ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy. (Trends Cardiovasc Med 2011; 21:224-228) (C) 2011 Elsevier inc. All rights reserved.”
“Pain was reported by 60-90% of patients with depression, and chronic pain states are often linked to depression. Animal models of pain/depression are generally lacking for the identification of centrally active drugs. In the present

study, pain sensitivity was assessed in a mouse model of anxiety/depression on the basis of chronic corticosterone click here (CORT) administration through the drinking water (CORT model). We measured thermal hyperalgesia as shown by a decrease

in the latency to hind paw licking in the hot plate test and cold allodynia reflected by a decrease in the time spent on the plate set at 20 degrees C in the thermal preference plate test. Subsequently, we determined the effect of chronic administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (an antidepressant known to reverse anxiety/depressive-like state in CORT-treated Epacadostat supplier mice) on pain relief. Fluoxetine administration reduced both heat hyperalgesia and cold allodynia, thus unveiling a putative link between mood and nociception in the CORT model. This hypothesis is consistent with previous clinical studies reporting the analgesic efficacy of fluoxetine in depressed patients suffering from pain disorders. Together, these results suggest that the CORT model, with pain/anxiety/depressive-like state, is a good candidate for translational research. NeuroReport 23:525-529 (C) 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Graft arteriosclerosis (GA), the major cause of late cardiac allograft failure, is characterized by a diffuse, concentric arterial intimal hyperplasia composed of infiltrating host T cells, macrophages, and predominantly graft-derived smooth muscle-like cells that proliferate and elaborate extracellular matrix, resulting in luminal obstruction and allograft ischemia. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma),

a proinflammatory cytokine produced by effector T cells, is a critical mediator for smooth muscle-like cell proliferation. We have exploited Carbachol the power of mouse genetics to examine the function of AIP1, a signaling adaptor molecule involved in vascular inflammation, in two newly established IFN-gamma-mediated models of GA. Our data suggest that AIP1 inhibits intimal formation in GA by downregulating IFN-gamma-activated migratory and proliferative signaling pathways in smooth muscle-like cells. (Trends Cardiovasc Med 2011;21:229-233) (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“In women, pain symptoms and nociceptive thresholds vary with the reproductive cycle, suggesting the role of estrogen receptors (ERs) in modulating nociception.


“The Kv4 potassium channel alpha subunits, Kv4 1, Kv4 2, a


“The Kv4 potassium channel alpha subunits, Kv4.1, Kv4.2, and Kv4.3, determine some of the fundamental physiological properties of neurons in the CNS. Kv4 subunits are associated with auxiliary beta-subunits, such as the potassium channel interacting proteins (KChIP1 – 4), which are thought to regulate the trafficking and gating of native Kv4 potassium channels. Intriguingly, KChIP1 is thought to show cell type-selective expression in GABA-ergic inhibitory interneurons,

while other beta-subunits (KChIP2-4) are associated with principal glutamatergic neuron’s. However, nothing is known about the expression of Kv4 family alpha- and beta-subunits Idasanutlin cell line in specific interneurons populations in the BLA. Here, we have used immunofiluorescence, co-immunoprecipitation, and Western Blotting to determine the relative expression of KChIP1 in the different interneuron subtypes within the BLA, and its co-localization with one or more of the Kv4 alpha subunits. WE, show that all three alpha-subunits of Kv4 potassium channel are found in rat BLA neurons, and that

the immunoreactivity of KChIP1 closely resembles that of Kv4.3. Indeed, Kv4.3 showed almost complete co-localization with KChIP1 in the soma and dendrites of a distinct subpopulation of BLA neurons. Dual-immunofluorescence Talazoparib in vitro studies revealed this to be in BLA interneurons immunoreactive for parvalbumin, cholecystokin-8, and somatostatin. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation studies showed that KChIP1 was associated with all three Kv4 alpha subunits. Together our results suggest that KChIP1 is selectively expressed in BLA interneurons where it may function to regulate the activity of A-type potassium channels. Hence, KChIP1 might be considered as a cell type-specific regulator of GABAergic inhibitory Liothyronine Sodium circuits in the BLA. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Although most inbred mouse strains are highly susceptible to mouse hepatitis virus (MHV)

infection, the inbred SJL line of mice is highly resistant to its infection. The principal receptor for MHV is murine CEACAM1 (mCEACAM1). Susceptible strains of mice are homozygous for the 1a allele of mCeacam1, while SJL mice are homozygous for the 1b allele. mCEACAM1a (1a) has a 10- to 100-fold-higher receptor activity than does mCEACAM1b (1b). To explore the hypothesis that MHV susceptibility is due to the different MHV receptor activities of 1a and 1b, we established a chimeric C57BL/6 mouse (cB61ba) in which a part of the N-terminal immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain of the mCeacam1a (1a) gene, which is responsible for MHV receptor function, is replaced by the corresponding region of mCeacam1b (1b). We compared the MHV susceptibility of these chimeric mice to that of SJL and B6 mice.