Anthropometric measurements were performed

according to t

Anthropometric measurements were performed

according to the Anthropometric Standardization Reference Manual [45]. Weight was measured to the nearest 0.1 kg using an electronic scale (Tanita BWB-800 Medical Scales, USA), and height to the nearest 1 cm using a Harpenden portable stadiometer (Holtain Ltd, UK). Skinfolds were measured to the nearest 1 mm using a Holtain caliper (Holtain Ltd, UK), and circumferences to the nearest 0.001 m using an anthropometric tape. All measurements were taken by the same operator (LC) before and during the study according to standard procedures [45, 46]. Following the anthropometric assessment a standardized warm-up lasting 15 minutes consisting of callisthenic exercise was carried out. selleck inhibitor After 5–8 minutes all the athletes underwent the following strength tests: squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ), 15 seconds of consecutive CMJs, push-ups test, reverse grip chins test, legs closed barrier maximum test, parallel bar dips test. Jump tests were

performed on a contact mat (Ergojump—Bosco system, srl, S. Rufina di Cittaducale, Rieti, Italia), that allowed the measurement of height of jump, time of flight and time of contact. The height of jumps was calculated according to the Asmussen and Bonde-Petersen formula [47]. All jump test techniques assume that the athlete’s position on the mat is the same both at take-off and landing. During jumps athlete’s hands were kept on hips to minimize upper limbs contribution and trunk was maintained erect. The SJ test was performed from the seated 5-Fluoracil position maintained at least for 1 second (knee secured at 90° of knee flexion) then athletes were asked to jump. The CMJ starting from a standing position, then subjects were Epothilone B (EPO906, Patupilone) instructed to perform a

rapid downward movement to about 90° of knee flexion immediately followed by an upward movement. The CMJs were click here consecutively repeated during 15 seconds without recovery between jumps. For CMJs mean jump height and mechanical power per kilogram of body weight were computed [48]. For all three test types the subjects were requested to jump as high as possible. SJ and CMJ were performed three times with two minutes rest between each trial. The best performance was retained and included in the test [49]. The exercises for the upper part of the body were carried out by each athlete until exhaustion. In the push-up test the subjects were positioned with the palms of the hands in support on the floor at shoulder width; at the start of the exercise, the subjects folded their arms while contemporaneously lowering the trunk to the floor. In the reverse grip chins test the athletes grabbed the bar (as used in artistic gymnastics) at shoulder width; the subjects first brought the chest to the bar height. In the legs closed barrier maximum test, the subjects grab the bar and without oscillating the pelvis elevated the lower limbs to bring the back of both feet in contact with the bar.

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