Conclusion Radial tears and herniation are significant predictor

Conclusion. Radial tears and herniation are significant predictors of progressive nuclear degeneration, which was not seen in the absence of radial tears. End plate defects also frequently occur before nuclear degeneration but rarely in the absence of anular tears.”
“Semi and full interpenetrating network (IPN) hydrogels were synthesized by

allowing free radical copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA) and hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) in the matrix of polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH). Accordingly, four Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor different semi IPN hydrogels were prepared with PVOH: copolymer mass ratio of 1 : 1, 1 : 0.75, 1 : 0.5, and 1 : 0.25. These hydrogels were designated as SEMIIPN1, SEMIIPN2, SEMIIPN3, and SEMIIPN4, respectively. In all of these SEMIIPN, after polymerization PVOH was crosslinked with 2 mass % glutaraldehyde to form the semi IPN structure. In a similar way, sequential full IPN were prepared from PVOH and copolymer of AA and HEMA (designated

as PAAHEMA) with same composition except in this case apart from crosslinking of PVOH by 2 mass % glutaraldehyde the PAAHEMA copolymer was further crosslinked with N,N’-methylenebisacrylamide (NMBA) to produce four full IPN hydrogels designated as FULLIPN1, FULLIPN2, FULLIPN3, and FULLIPN4. All of these semi and full IPN type hydrogels were characterized by carboxylic %, FTIR, UV, DTA-TGA, XRD, SEM, and mechanical properties. The network Raf phosphorylation parameters, swelling and diffusion characteristics of these hydrogels were also studied. The performance of these semi and full IPNs were compared in terms of their relative abilities for removing varied

concentration of rhodamine SIS3 clinical trial B (RB) and methyl Violet (MV) dyes from water. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“The brittle culm (bc) mutants of Gramineae plants having brittle skeletal structures are valuable materials for studying secondary cell walls. In contrast to other recessive bc mutants, rice Bc6 is a semi-dominant bc mutant with easily breakable plant bodies. In this study, the Bc6 gene was cloned by positional cloning. Bc6 encodes a cellulose synthase catalytic subunit, OsCesA9, and has a missense mutation in its highly conserved region. In culms of the Bc6 mutant, the proportion of cellulose was reduced by 38%, while that of hemicellulose was increased by 34%. Introduction of the semi-dominant Bc6 mutant gene into wild-type rice significantly reduced the percentage of cellulose, causing brittle phenotypes. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that Bc6 mutation reduced the cell wall thickness of sclerenchymal cells in culms. In rice expressing a reporter construct, BC6 promoter activity was detected in the culms, nodes, and flowers, and was localized primarily in xylem tissues.

A 6-week alcohol consumption resulted in lower (p<0 05) body w

A 6-week alcohol consumption resulted in lower (p<0.05) body weight gain and self-antioxidant capacities, as well as increased (p<0.05) liver size, serum/hepatic lipids, and AST and ALT values. However, alcohol-fed rats co-treated with Tau have decreased (p<0.05) liver lipid levels via increasing fecal lipid output and cholesterol metabolism. Besides, co-treatment

of Tau also selleck inhibitor enhanced (p<0.05) self-antioxidant capacities and alcohol metabolism in livers via enhancing GSH contents, CAT. GSH-Px, ADH, and ALDH activities, but decreasing MDA contents. In a histological examination of rat liver, microvesicular steatosis and necrotic cells were observed in alcohol-fed rats without Tau while largely suppressed microvesicular steatosis and no necrotic cells were observed in alcohol-fed rat supplemented with Tau. Therefore, Tau could be an effective hepatoprotective agent against alcohol-induced damage via enhancing self-antioxidant capacity and alcohol metabolism. Crown Copyright (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

“Background and Aims: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) and familial combined hyperlipidaemia (FCH) are common atherogenic disorders with great variability in cardiovascular disease (CVD). No direct atherosclerosis burden comparisons have been performed between FH and FCH in relation to lipoprotein particle distribution.

Methods and Results: Risk factors and

three measures of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in both sides were determined in 572 FH, 250 FCH and 200 controls. Lipoproteins were assessed by nuclear magnetic GSK1838705A in vitro resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Compared with controls, IMT measures were increased in FH and FCH. FCH had the highest adjusted mean-maximum IMT. FH had twice low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles than controls, but similar LDL subclass size and distribution. FCH subjects also had increased LDL particles and the highest number of small LDL (1519 +/- 731 nmol l GSK2245840 purchase (1) vs. 887 +/- 784 nmol l (1) in FH and 545 +/- 409 nmol l (1) in controls). Age, gender, cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio, smoking and systolic blood pressure were independently associated with IMT in FH (r(2) = 0.38). The same variables, except”
“The analysis of case series of new daily persistent headache (NDPH) reported so far in the literature and the clinical evaluation of affected patients seen at headache clinics suggest that the current International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-II) diagnostic criteria for NDPH are not adequate. In particular, in several instances headache features are not consistent with those of tension-type headache, as the ICHD-II expects. Before making a diagnosis of primary NDPH, it is imperative to rule out that it may be due to any underlying systemic disease.

These surgeons also have a decrease in morbidity and mortality ra

These surgeons also have a decrease in morbidity and mortality rates when compared with surgeons who perform fewer than 10 hysterectomies per year. (Obstet Gynecol 2010;116:909-15)”
“Sulfur (S) is an essential macronutrient for plants, and deficiency in soil S availability limits plant growth. Adaptive strategies have been evolved by plants to respond to S deficiency by coordinating systemic

regulatory mechanism. A split-root experiment using legume model plant Medicago truncatula Gaertn. was conducted to investigate the systemic response to S deficiency. Plant growth, root morphology and S contents under varying conditions of S supply were determined, and the expression of genes encoding sulfate transporter (MtSULTRs) and MtAPR1 encoding

an enzyme involved in S assimilation was monitored. Our results demonstrated that there was an apparent systemic response of M. truncatula to heterogeneous S supply in terms of root length, S contents, SBE-β-CD inhibitor and S uptake and assimilation at the transcriptional level. When exposed to heterogeneous S supply, M. truncatula plants showed proliferation of lateral roots in S-rich medium and reduction in investment to S-depleted roots. Growth was stimulated with half-part of roots exposed to S-deficient medium. There were different expression patterns of MtSULTRs and MtAPR1 in response to heterogeneous S supply both in roots and shoots of M. truncatula. Expression of MtSULTR1.1 and MtSULTR1.3 was systemically responsive to S deficiency, Selleckchem SNX-5422 leading to an enhancement of S uptake in roots exposed to S-sufficient medium. In addition, buy DZNeP the response of S-deprived

seedlings to re-supply of sulfate and Cys was also analyzed. It was shown that sulfate, but not Cys, may serve as a systemic signal to regulate the expression of genes associated with S absorption and assimilation in M. truncatula. These findings provide a comprehensive picture of systemic responses to S deficiency in leguminous species.”
“Background: Long acquisition times and complex breathing motion patterns lead to suboptimal image quality in whole heart coronary magnetic resonance angiography (WHCMRA). To overcome this problem, an abdominal belt (BELT) has been suggested by a Japanese group. However, its applicability in a Western population has not been previously demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to investigate 1) how the application of a BELT alters breathing patterns during MR scanning and 2) whether the BELT has a similar impact on breathing patterns in UK and Japanese patient populations.

Methods: 30 patients (15 in the UK and 15 in Japan) were studied at 1.5 Tesla (Achieva, Philips Healthcare). Real time navigator positioned through the right diaphragm in cranio-caudal direction was evaluated. Measurements were performed in the supine position with free breathing for one minute before and after a tight-fitting BELT was positioned around the patient’s abdomen.

The distribution

The distribution PFTα of MCYST in water and surface scum and toxin bioaccumulations in the omnivorous fish species Carassius gibelio were surveyed in all lakes. Considerable amounts of MCYST were found in water and scum of all lakes, irrespective of the trophic state, the type of the lake, and the reported dominant cyanobacterial species. Toxin accumulation in six tissues (liver, brain, intestine, kidney, ovary, and muscle) of C. gibelio was also analyzed. Even though the target organ for MCYST is the liver, in our study, MCYST were found also in the rest of C. gibelio tissues in the following order: liver > intestine > kidney > brain > ovaries > muscle. Risk assessments were carried out, taking into account

the WHO guidelines and the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for MCYST. Our findings suggest that the amounts of MCYST found in water of Lakes Kastoria, Koronia, Pamvotis, Doirani, Mikri Prespa, Petron, and Zazari, pose adverse health risks. Also, it is likely to be unsafe to consume C. gibelio in Lakes Koronia, Kastoria, Pamvotis, and Mikri Prespa due to the high concentrations of accumulated MCYST. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 25: 418-427, 2010.”
“Aims: Our study aims to estimate whether measurement of maternal

anti-cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin-M antibody (CMV-IgM) levels are useful as a screening method for achieving early detection of congenital CMV infection. Material and Methods: Levels of maternal CMV-IgM Selleck Vadimezan were measured by enzyme immunoassay in all (n = 2865) pregnant women who visited our hospital in the first trimester during the period from January 2005 to December 2009. Results: Among them, 21 individuals (0.73%) had a CMV-IgM titer of =0.08 MK-2206 cost and were judged to be CMV-IgM-positive.

Informed consent was obtained from all 21 individuals to perform the confirmation test that quantifies the levels of cytomegalovirus DNA (CMV-DNA) in amniotic fluid by real-time polymerase chain reaction. However, only one (0.03%) of the 21 individuals was CMV-DNA-positive (CMV-DNA concentration, 1.0 x 104 copies/ml). Conclusion: In order to detect congenital CMV infection in early pregnancy, it is considered appropriate to use ultrasound for close examination of embryo or fetal symptoms indicative of CMV instead of performing serological screening based on CMV-IgM.”
“OBJECTIVE: To update a previously reported meta-analysis of evidence regarding the diagnostic accuracy and performance characteristics of commercial and non-commercial phage-based assays for the detection of rifampicin (RMP) resistant tuberculosis (TB).

DESIGN AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of test accuracy using bivariate random effects regression and hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristics (HSROC) analysis. Tests included the commercial FASTPlaque (TM) assays, luciferase reporter phage (LRP) assays, and in-house phage amplification tests.

6% in controls; odds ratio [OR] = 1 85; 95% confidence interval [

6% in controls; odds ratio [OR] = 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.14-3.00). Based on haplotype analysis, the T-C shift was significantly more frequent in controls (14.4% versus 7.1% in FMF patients). This haplotype could be protective for FMF disease (OR = 0.45; 95% CI

= 0.25-0.84). The frequency of CC-CT (1236-3435) binary genotype was significantly higher in FMF patients (14.79% versus 4.61% in controls; OR = 3.59; 95% CI = 1.40-9.20).”
“We present calculations of the magnetization configuration and reversal behavior of magnetic nanotubes with uniaxial anisotropy by means of two-dimensional micromagnetic simulations ACY-738 molecular weight and analytical methods. The tube radii R from 50 to 150 nm and the tube length /radius aspect ratio L/R <= 20 were explored. For a finite length of magnetic nanotubes the magnetization configuration is characterized by a uniformly magnetized along the tube axis middle part and two nonuniform curling states of a length L-c in two ends of the tube with Bcl 2 inhibitor the same or opposite magnetization

rotating senses, referring as C-state or B-state, respectively. We found that the magnetization configuration of the C-state exists for thin nanotubes with the tube thickness, Delta R, in the range of Delta R/R <= 0.2. For thicker nanotubes the strong magnetostatic stray field forces the change of rotating senses of the end domains in opposite directions (the B-state). The transition from the C-state to a vortex state with in-plane magnetization is described as function of the tube geometrical parameters. The nanotube hysteresis loops and switching fields were calculated. The simple analytical model was developed to describe the nanotube magnetization reversal reducing its description to the Stoner-Wohlfarth model with effective parameters. The equilibrium state of nanotube is described in terms of theta, the angle of the magnetization deviation from the intrinsic tube easy axis. The L/R dependence of the C-state magnetization, the shape of hysteresis loops and the switching field values are described by a dependence of theta on L/R. (C)

2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3488630]“
“Background: We assessed the infant feeding choices of HIV-1-infected women in rural Tamil Nadu, BMS-754807 price India, and risk factors for mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1.

Methods: The study population comprised live born infants of HIV-1-infected women from the antenatal clinics of 2 public hospitals in rural Tamil Nadu, India who were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. All women enrolled in the cohort were offered antiretroviral prophylaxis and infant feeding counseling based on WHO/UNAIDS/UNICEF training materials. Infant study visits were scheduled at birth (within the first 24 hours of life), at 1 week, 1 month, and 2 months after birth, and then every 2 months between 4 and 12 months of age.

Results: One-third of women did not breast-feed their infants.

Clinical Recommendations Recommendation 1: There is insufficient

Clinical Recommendations. Recommendation 1: There is insufficient evidence to support the routine use of MRI in patients with CLBP. Recommendation: Strong Recommendation 2: Surgical treatment of CLBP based exclusively on MRI findings of degenerative changes selleckchem is not recommended. Recommendation: Strong”
“Children (6-12 years) with attention-deficit

hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) being treated with methylphenidate and standard behavior therapy for more than 6 months, whose parents reported no improvement in behavior and academic learning, were randomly assigned to receive supplementation with a combined omega 3 and omega 6 preparation or a placebo. Outcome was measured at 3 and 6 months after treatment using a self-assessment checklist completed by the parents. Statistically significant improvement was found in the treatment group compared with the placebo group (P < .01) in the following measures: restlessness, aggressiveness, completing work, and academic performance. Statistically significant improvement

S3I-201 in vitro was not found at 3 months of treatment between groups but was evident at 6 months of treatment (P < .05) with inattention, impulsiveness, and cooperation with parents and teachers. Distractibility failed to show improvement. Effect sizes ranged from 0.3 to 1.1 at 3 months and 0.2 to 1.4 at 6 months for individual symptom variables.”
“Most acute cases of infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Hong Kong were autochthonous, sporadic, and occurred in older adults. All except 1 isolate belonged to genotype 4; most were phylogenetically related to swine isolates. The epidemiology is similar to that in industrialized countries, where zoonosis is the major source of HEV infection in humans.”
“Hib-primed but MenC-naive toddlers (N = 433) were randomized to receive 1 dose of Hib-MenC-TT or separate Hib-TT

and MenC-CRM(197) vaccines. One month later, noninferiority was demonstrated for serum bactericidal anti-MenC antibodies (rSBA) and Hib antipolyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) antibodies; >99% in both groups had rSBA titer >= 8 or anti-PRP concentration >= 0.15 mu g/mL. After 12 months, see more rSBA titer >= 8 persisted in 86.7% and 76.4%, and anti-PRP concentration >= 0.15 mu g/mL persisted in 98.8% and 100% of children, respectively.”
“Study Design. Systematic review.

Objective. The objectives of this systematic review were to determine whether fusion is superior to conservative management in certain psychological subpopulations and to determine the most common psychological screening tests and their ability to predict outcome after treatment in patients with chronic lower back pain.

Summary of Background Data. Many studies have documented the effects of various psychological disorders on outcomes in the treatment of lower back pain. The question of whether patients with certain psychological disorders would benefit more from conservative treatment than fusion is not clear.

“For carbon tetrachloride, a temperature Hugoniot at 7-23

“For carbon tetrachloride, a temperature Hugoniot at 7-23 GPa and a distribution of the constant-volume specific heat on the Hugoniot C(V)(T) at 1057-3275 K are simultaneously estimated from the Walsh-Christian (WC) equation such that the Hugoniot fits well to the existing measured data. The estimated C(V)(T) distribution reveals the significance of the contribution of electrons and ions to the specific heat. That is, in contrast to the almost uniform distribution of the specific heat predicted from the Debye equation, the C(V)(T) distribution increases significantly with an increase in the Hugoniot temperature due to thermal excitation

of electrons at 1057-1500 K selleck chemicals llc (7-10.1 GPa), additional activation of the dimerization reaction at 1500-2350 K (10.1-16 GPa), and also additional activation of the polymerization reaction Galardin at 2350-3275 K (16-23 GPa). As an example, evidence is presented that carbon tetrachloride

is a semiconductor at 1500 K. The C(V)(T) distribution in each temperature range is formulated and a temperature Hugoniot is reevaluated from the WC equation using the specific heat equations formulated. It is confirmed by a good fit of the reevaluated Hugoniot to the existing measured data that the specific heat equations express the C(V)(T) distribution appropriately.”
“Background-Familial dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a genetically heterogeneous disease with >30 known genes. TTN truncating variants were recently implicated in a candidate gene study to cause 25% of familial and 18% of sporadic DCM cases.

Methods and Results-We used an unbiased genome-wide approach using both linkage analysis and variant filtering across the exome sequences of 48 individuals affected with DCM from 17 families to identify

genetic cause. Linkage analysis ranked the TTN region as falling under the second highest genome-wide multipoint linkage peak, multipoint logarithm of odds, 1.59. We identified 6 TTN truncating variants carried by individuals affected with DCM in 7 of 17 DCM families (logarithm of odds, 2.99); 2 of these 7 families also had novel missense variants that segregated with disease. Two additional novel truncating TTN variants did not segregate with DCM. Nucleotide diversity at the TTN buy 3-MA locus, including missense variants, was comparable with 5 other known DCM genes. The average number of missense variants in the exome sequences from the DCM cases or the approximate to 5400 cases from the Exome Sequencing Project was approximate to 23 per individual. The average number of TTN truncating variants in the Exome Sequencing Project was 0.014 per individual. We also identified a region (chr9q21.11-q22.31) with no known DCM genes with a maximum heterogeneity logarithm of odds score of 1.74.

Conclusions-These data suggest that TTN truncating variants contribute to DCM cause.

Membranes were prepared by solution casting as well as phase-inve

Membranes were prepared by solution casting as well as phase-inversion method. The later types of membranes exhibited much higher H(3)PO(4) content than its doping achieved in the solution casted membranes. These PBIs possess low hydrogen and helium permeability than that of conventional PBI. This low permeability, along with their excellent oxidative stability Compound C chemical structure indicated that they can be promising PEM materials. Their CO(2)-sorption analysis revealed that PBI(6) based on suberic acid possesses appreciable CO(2) sorption. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 120: 1090-1099, 2011″

and mitochondria each arose from a single endosymbiotic event and share many similarities in how they were reduced and integrated with their host. However, the subsequent evolution of the two organelles could hardly be more different: mitochondria are a stable fixture of eukaryotic cells that are neither lost nor shuffled between lineages, whereas plastid evolution has been a complex mix of movement,

loss and replacement. Molecular data from the past decade have substantially untangled this complex history, and we now know that plastids are derived from a single endosymbiotic event in the ancestor of glaucophytes, red algae and green algae (including plants). The plastids of both red algae and green algae were subsequently transferred to other lineages by secondary endosymbiosis. Green algal plastids were taken up by euglenids and chlorarachniophytes,

Ricolinostat as well as one small group of dinoflagellates. Red algae appear to have been taken up only once, giving rise to a diverse group called chromalveolates. Additional layers of complexity come from plastid loss, which has happened at least once and probably many times, and replacement. Plastid loss is difficult to prove, and cryptic, non-photosynthetic plastids are being found in many non-photosynthetic lineages. In other cases, photosynthetic lineages are now understood to have evolved from ancestors with a plastid of different origin, so an ancestral plastid has been replaced with a new one. Such replacement has taken place in several dinoflagellates DMH1 (by tertiary endosymbiosis with other chromalveolates or serial secondary endosymbiosis with a green alga), and apparently also in two rhizarian lineages: chlorarachniophytes and Paulinella (which appear to have evolved from chromalveolate ancestors). The many twists and turns of plastid evolution each represent major evolutionary transitions, and each offers a glimpse into how genomes evolve and how cells integrate through gene transfers and protein trafficking.”
“The aims of this study were to examine unfavorable attitudes toward receiving methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) and associated factors among inmates using intravenous heroin in Taiwan. A total of 315 inmates using intravenous heroin were recruited.

One in 8 women in the United States will develop breast cancer in

One in 8 women in the United States will develop breast cancer in her lifetime. Breast cancer incidence rates increased slightly among African American women; decreased among Hispanic women; and were stable among whites, Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaska Natives from 2006 to 2010. Historically, white women have had the highest breast cancer incidence rates among women aged AZD5363 manufacturer 40 years and older; however, incidence rates are converging among white

and African American women, particularly among women aged 50 years to 59 years. Incidence rates increased for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers in the youngest white women, Hispanic women aged 60 years to 69 years, and all but the oldest African American women. In contrast, estrogen receptor-negative breast cancers declined among most age and racial/ethnic groups. These divergent trends may reflect etiologic heterogeneity and the differing effects of some factors, such as obesity and parity, on risk by tumor subtype. Since 1990, breast cancer death rates have dropped by 34% and this decrease

was evident in all racial/ethnic groups except American Indians/Alaska Natives. Nevertheless, survival disparities persist by race/ethnicity, with African American women having the poorest breast cancer survival of any racial/ethnic group. Continued progress in the control of breast cancer will require sustained and increased efforts to provide high-quality screening, diagnosis, and treatment to all segments of the population. CA Cancer J Clin 2014;64:52-62. ((c)) 2013 American Cancer Society, Inc.”
“This cohort profile describes the origins, tracing, recruitment, testing and follow-up

of the University of Edinburgh-based Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 (LBC1921; N = 550) and 1936 (LBC1936; N = 1091). The participants undertook a general intelligence test at age 11 years and were recruited for these cohorts at mean ages of 79 (LBC1921) and 70 (LBC1936). The LBC1921 have been examined at mean ages of 79, 83, 87 and 90 years. The LBC1936 have been examined at mean ages of 70 Blasticidin S and 73 years, and are being seen at 76 years. Both samples have an emphasis on the ageing of cognitive functions as outcomes. As they have childhood intelligence test scores, the cohorts’ data have been used to search for determinants of lifetime cognitive changes, and also cognitive change within old age. The cohorts’ outcomes also include a range of physical and psycho-social aspects of well-being in old age. Both cohorts have a wide range of variables: genome-wide genotyping, demographics, psycho-social and lifestyle factors, cognitive functions, medical history and examination, and biomarkers (from blood and urine). The LBC1936 participants also have a detailed structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scan. A range of scientific findings is described, to illustrate the possible uses of the cohorts.

These interactions affected the molecular weight of the prepared

These interactions affected the molecular weight of the prepared nanocomposites. At low concentrations the SiO(2) nanoparticles acted as chain extenders, increasing the molecular weight of PBSu, while at higher loadings they resulted in extended branching and crosslinking reactions, leading to gradually decreased molecular weights. Silica nanoparticles acted as nucleating agents, increasing the crystallization rate of PBSu. However, the degree of crystallinity was slightly reduced. Tensile strength and Young’s modulus were significantly increased with increasing SiO(2) content. The presence of the nanoparticles resulted in reduced PLX4032 mouse enzymatic hydrolysis rates compared

to pure PBSu, attributed to the smaller available organic surface, due to the incorporation of SiO(2), and to the existence of branched and crosslinked macromolecules. Dynamic mechanical and rheological properties were also extensively studied. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 119: 2010-2024, 2011″
“Excitation power dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was employed to determine the thermal degradation of InGaN quantum wells (QWs) structure with different Si doping in well region. At a low excitation power density, PL intensity of undoped InGaN

well was significantly decreased, while those of interfacial and full Si-doped InGaN well were slightly Vorinostat in vitro reduced by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) process. However, Buparlisib ic50 PL measurement with high excitation power density showed that PL intensities of InGaN QWs regardless of Si doping were almost similar with/without RTA process. In addition, x-ray diffraction results indicated that Si-doping in well could improve the interfacial quality of InGaN QWs. Therefore, we suggest that Si doping suppress the generation of nonradiative recombination centers by thermal degradation at weaker localization states which could be easily filled by low excitation carriers. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3511712]“
“Phosphate tri (2,6,7-trioxa-1-phosphabicyclo [2.2.2] octane-1-oxo-4-methanol)

phosphate (trimer) and its microcapsules with MUF resin shell, respectively, were synthesized. Their structures were characterized by NMR, IR, and SEM analysis. Epoxy resins (EP) were modified with trimer, and its microcapsules to get the flame retardant EP, whose flammability and burning behavior were characterized by UL 94 and limiting oxygen index (LOI). About 20% of the trimer microcapsules were doped into EP to get 30.2% of LOI and UL 94 V-0. Thermal properties of the flame retardant EP were investigated with thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG). Weight loss behavior and thermal stability were characterized. For EP containing the trimer microcapsules, compared with EP containing trimer, incorporating melamine group into EP decreased weight loss and the maximum weight loss rate, increased the char yield and thermal stability.