Conclusion. Radial tears and herniation are significant predictors of progressive nuclear degeneration, which was not seen in the absence of radial tears. End plate defects also frequently occur before nuclear degeneration but rarely in the absence of anular tears.”
“Semi and full interpenetrating network (IPN) hydrogels were synthesized by
allowing free radical copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA) and hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) in the matrix of polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH). Accordingly, four Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor different semi IPN hydrogels were prepared with PVOH: copolymer mass ratio of 1 : 1, 1 : 0.75, 1 : 0.5, and 1 : 0.25. These hydrogels were designated as SEMIIPN1, SEMIIPN2, SEMIIPN3, and SEMIIPN4, respectively. In all of these SEMIIPN, after polymerization PVOH was crosslinked with 2 mass % glutaraldehyde to form the semi IPN structure. In a similar way, sequential full IPN were prepared from PVOH and copolymer of AA and HEMA (designated
as PAAHEMA) with same composition except in this case apart from crosslinking of PVOH by 2 mass % glutaraldehyde the PAAHEMA copolymer was further crosslinked with N,N’-methylenebisacrylamide (NMBA) to produce four full IPN hydrogels designated as FULLIPN1, FULLIPN2, FULLIPN3, and FULLIPN4. All of these semi and full IPN type hydrogels were characterized by carboxylic %, FTIR, UV, DTA-TGA, XRD, SEM, and mechanical properties. The network Raf phosphorylation parameters, swelling and diffusion characteristics of these hydrogels were also studied. The performance of these semi and full IPNs were compared in terms of their relative abilities for removing varied
concentration of rhodamine SIS3 clinical trial B (RB) and methyl Violet (MV) dyes from water. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“The brittle culm (bc) mutants of Gramineae plants having brittle skeletal structures are valuable materials for studying secondary cell walls. In contrast to other recessive bc mutants, rice Bc6 is a semi-dominant bc mutant with easily breakable plant bodies. In this study, the Bc6 gene was cloned by positional cloning. Bc6 encodes a cellulose synthase catalytic subunit, OsCesA9, and has a missense mutation in its highly conserved region. In culms of the Bc6 mutant, the proportion of cellulose was reduced by 38%, while that of hemicellulose was increased by 34%. Introduction of the semi-dominant Bc6 mutant gene into wild-type rice significantly reduced the percentage of cellulose, causing brittle phenotypes. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that Bc6 mutation reduced the cell wall thickness of sclerenchymal cells in culms. In rice expressing a reporter construct, BC6 promoter activity was detected in the culms, nodes, and flowers, and was localized primarily in xylem tissues.