4f and h). A polyclonal antibody to flagella from B. bacilliformis (Scherer et al., 1993), which is closely related to A. felis, did not recognize Afipia flagellae, indicating substantial diversity in their flagella amino acid sequences. DNA was isolated and sequenced outward using primer Kan-2 FP01 for the transposon-flanking regions. We have obtained two sequences that prove an integration of the transposon in genes involved in flagella biosynthesis (Fig. 5). The sequence of mutant G4 (Fig. 4f) showed high similarities to FlhA, a part of the flagella export apparatus in different click here bacteria species (Ghelardi et al., 2002; McMurry et al., 2004). This mutant was detected using nonpermeabilized cells
and CSD11, because the CSD11 target antigen (flagellin) did not appear on the bacterial cell surface due to an export defect. When the same screen was performed in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) to permeabilize the bacterial cells, this mutant showed weak signals due to the accessibility of the flagellar antigen under these conditions and was therefore not detected (data not shown). In an SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) with bacterial lysate material, the signal was not intense enough to be detected (Fig. 4i). One possible reason could be the degradation of the protein when export is disturbed as shown for a flhA mutant of Bacillus thuringiensis (Ghelardi et
al., 2002). Such fragments might be too small for detection in standard Western-blotting experiments with SDS-PAGE, while they are detected using colony blots. Similar reasons probably caused the identification of a total of seven flagella-deficient Tigecycline cost mutants in a screen without SDS permeabilization, while in its presence none of these clones was identified (data not shown). The mutant D5 (Fig. 4g) likely codes for a defective flagellin gene, probably in the region corresponding to the protein’s C-terminus. This would explain why the flagellin is still detected by CSD11 antibody but the protein had a reduced molecular weight. Because of the ∼420 remaining amino acids before insertion of the transposon (Fig. 5a), the expected mass of the truncated flagellin would be about 40–45 kDa, which
is the mass of the observed truncated flagellin in Western blot (Fig. 4i). Because the C-terminus of flagellin is these well conserved and important for assembly of the flagellar filament (Beatson et al., 2006), a defect in this area can result in unstable shortened flagella, which were observed using immunofluorescence (Fig. 4g) as well as scanning electron microscopy (Fig. 4b). In summary, we provide evidence that we have developed a genetic system to mutagenize Afipia spp. and a suitable vector system for gene cloning in this genus. We further present the first mutant A. felis, in this case with defects in flagella biogenesis. The tools presented here will help to analyse the unusual phagosome biogenesis of A. felis in macrophages (Lührmann et al.