6%) cases Apparently, as an unintended consequence, the pre-exis

6%) cases. Apparently, as an unintended consequence, the pre-existing difference in knowledge

regarding EPO and nitric oxide (correct answers logged as 17 vs. 5, respectively) was magnified by providing information on both, despite the health option focus of the information material. Beliefs and attitudes Results from the questionnaire showed explicitly declared beliefs and attitudes of the recreational gym users in the sample. The majority of the respondents believed that those on the WADA List of Prohibited Substances are effective for performance enhancement (extremely effective: 17.4%, fairly effective: 21.7%, effective: 26.1%, somewhat effective: 29.6%, not at all effective: 5.2%) and this view did not change after the AZD9291 research buy information intervention. At the baseline measure, a considerable proportion of the respondents (73/115) felt that functional foods are not comparable healthy alternatives to doping. After the information intervention, 37 of

these have changed their view resulting in a reversed balance between those who believed in FF as comparable alternatives to doping (78/114) and those who do not. Two belief measures were shown to increase (Figure 1). Belief in MLN2238 cost beetroot juice as an endurance performance aid significantly increased (Z = -6.312, p < 0.001) as well as belief

in functional foods as an overall performance GANT61 purchase enhancer (Z = -7.601, p < 0.001). Overall 51 and 75 respondents increased their ratings respectively after the intervention with 36 and 63 ties. Reversed effect (lower ranking after intervention only P-type ATPase occurred in 3 cases, limited to the general question of FF increasing competitiveness). Figure 1 Average explicit attitude scores before and after the information intervention. Green: performance specific substances; purple: general questions; dark columns show where change occurred. Implicit association was based on response latency measures on the FF – H/P tasks where functional food was paired with health and performance. Figure 2 depicts the average latency in each pairs in the FF – H/P task, before and after the intervention, whereas Figure 3 shows the corresponding D scores. Analysis of the pre-intervention data showed a greater preference for health in relation to functional food (Mean = 885.87 ± 203.88 ms in comparison to Mean = 1167 ± 100.89 ms averaged on the functional food – performance pair). This preference disappeared or even slightly reversed (Mean = 870.49 ± 135.15 ms vs. Mean = 817.08 ± 73.61 ms), after the information intervention focusing on performance enhancing properties of the selected functional foods.

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