8%; control: 48 3%) 104 Interestingly, across these studies, PCS

8%; control: 48.3%).104 Interestingly, across these studies, PCS was predicted by pain levels and PTSD symptoms. rFh cse data indicate that PCS is not unique to MTBI, and that these symptoms that are commonly attributed to MTBI are more parsimoniously explained by the effects of high arousal associated with the stress of surviving a traumatic injury. The problem of confusing MTBI and PTSD Military agencies have implemented programs for troops in Iraq and Afghanistan targeted towards treating the effects of MTBI. Much attention has been given to the “problem” of mild TBI, communicating

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to troops that MTBI is a syndrome that causes marked problems. Given the evidence Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical that so-called postconcussion-like symptoms and general health problems are largely related to psychological factors, there are likely risks in suggesting to troops that the problems experienced following MTBI should be attributed to neurological damage. Communicating to personnel who sustained a MTBI that a range of nonspecific symptoms are INNO-406 purchase caused by brain damage communicates a cause with a poor prognosis. This expectation that common sensations are signs of permanent dysfunction can result in hypervigilance to every sensation, followed by catastrophic attributions about the adverse consequences

of the sensations. This pattern has been well-documented across a range of disorders, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical including panic disorder, health anxiety, and hypochondriasis.105-107 In these disorders, people tend to be hypervigilant to somatic cues because they believe they Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical represent a threat to their physical well-being. For example, the

patient with panic disorder may believe that an alteration in his or her respiration is a sign of imminent choking or that a slight pain in the chest is indicative of an approaching cardiac arrest. Similarly, someone with health anxiety may constantly search their body for any alterations in appearance Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of function to determine if there arc signs of malignancy. Once the sensation or sign is detected, the person can catastrophize the sign in an extremely negative manner, such that the slightest somatic cue is perceived as indicative of dire outcomes. This is a common pattern in people with PTSD. Fear network models of PTSD propose that these individuals preferentially allocate attention to stimuli of concern because of their fear of threat.108 Consistent with this proposal, people with PTSD CYTH4 are hypervigilent to threat on a range of paradigms.109-111 Further, people with PTSD not only catastrophize about external threats,112 they also catastrophize about somatic and physical sensations.113 Therefore, people who are suffering the effects of PTSD will be attentive to any information that is perceived as threatening, and will likely attribute a range of physical, cognitive, and emotional responses to brain injury if this is provided as a salient explanation.

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