A yields were

A yields were BAY 73-4506 5 10 ug embryo. Microarray ana lysis was performed at the Center for Medical Genomics at the Indiana University School of Medicine. Labeling and hybridization to Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430A GeneChips were carried out following the manufacturers suggested procedure. Fragmented biotinylated RNA from each embryo was separately hybridized to its own GeneChip for 17 hours at 42 C. The microarray analysis revealed striking differ ences among the 4 alcohol treated samples, which segre gated as two separate pairs rather than one set of four, subsequently, it was noted that one pair of embryos had an open neural tube and the other pair had the neural tube closed. All 4 control embryos had closed neural tubes.

Experiment 2 Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries was designed to follow up these initial results and provide an independent test of the gene expres sion correlations with the two neural tube phenotypes. Total RNA was isolated from individual embryos. raction and microarray Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries analysis was as described above, except that Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2. 0 GeneChips were used. The Mouse Genome 430A chip contains over 22,600 probe sets representing transcripts and variants from over 14,000 well characterized mouse genes. The newer Mouse Genome 430 2. 0 Array contains all of the probe sets present on the earlier 430A chip plus additional probe sets for a total of approximately 45,000 Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries probe sets that analyze the expression of over 39,000 transcripts and variants from over 34,000 well characterized mouse genes.

The differences in feature size and probe set con tent make direct comparisons inappropriate, due to scanning and scaling issues, but because the probe sets on the 430A are present Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries on the 430 2. 0 array, those can be compared at the level of gene lists. The data from independent arrays for each of the treatments were extracted Batimastat using the Affymetrix Microarray Suite 5. 0 algorithm. Data for both experiments have been deposited in GEO NCBI and have been assigned series accession number GSE9545 and sample numbers GSM241642 through GSM241660. To minimize false positive results, only genes detected on at least half of all individual arrays in at least one experimental condition were retained for further analysis. This avoids data that primarily represent noise. To detect differentially expressed genes, control samples were compared to ALC NTC samples, or ALC NTO samples, or their combination, using a Welchs t test on the log transformed signals.

To see genes that were similarly affected in both experiments, we inter sected the gene lists. To avoid missing genes that met a stringent significance threshold in one experiment but were just beyond that Volasertib BI 6727 threshold in the second, we chose p 0. 05 as the threshold for each experiment. Given that the two experiments were independent, the prob ability that a gene overlaps by chance and differs in the same up down direction in both experiments is 2 0. 00125. False discovery rate was calcu lated based on the number of genes expected to be sig

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