(C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3569747]“
“Higher education level might result in reduced disparities in access to renal transplantation. We analyzed two outcomes: (i) being placed on the waiting list or transplanted without listing and (ii)
transplantation in patients who were placed on the waiting list. We identified 3224 adult patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in United States Renal Data System with education information available (mean age of ESRD onset of 57.1 +/- 16.2 yr old, 54.3% men, 64.2% white, and 50.4% diabetics). Compared to whites, HDAC inhibitor fewer African Americans graduated from college (10% vs. 16.7%) and a higher percentage never graduated from the high school (38.6% vs. 30.8%). African Selleckchem Fer-1 American race was associated with reduced access to transplantation (hazard ratio [HR] 0.70, p < 0.001 for wait-listing/transplantation without listing; HR 0.58, p < 0.001 for transplantation after listing). African American patients were less likely to be wait-listed/transplanted in the three less-educated groups: HR 0.67
(p = 0.005) for those never completed high school, HR 0.76 (p = 0.02) for high school graduates, and HR 0.65 (p = 0.003) for those with partial college education. However, the difference lost statistical significance in those who completed college education (HR 0.75, p = 0.1).
In conclusion, in comparing white and African American candidates, racial disparities in access to kidney transplantation do exist. However, they might be alleviated in highly educated individuals.”
“Introduction: The burden of typhoid fever in preschool children is not well recognized. The purpose NU7441 molecular weight of this study was to estimate the incidence of typhoid bacteremia in Pakistani children <5 years of age, with a focus on children younger than 2 years of age. This will help to inform prevention policies in highly endemic countries.
Methods: Household surveillance from
February 1, 2007 to May 12, 2008, was carried out by community health workers in 2 low-income, coastal communities of Karachi. Workers referred each sick child <5 years old to the local clinic. Blood for culture was obtained from those who gave consent, and inoculated in BACTEC Peds Plus bottles (Becton Dickinson, Sparks, MD) and processed per manufacturer’s guidelines.
Results: Overall, 5570 children contributed 3949 observation years. Blood culture was obtained from 1165 cases, yielding 36 pathogens. Salmonella Typhi was isolated in 16 cases, Salmonella Paratyphi A in 2 cases, and Salmonella Paratyphi B in 1 case. The incidence of typhoid bacteremia in children <2 years of age was 443.1 (95% confidence interval, 193.8-876.5) per 100,000 child years. The overall incidence rate of typhoid for children <5 years was 405.1 (95% confidence interval, 239.8-643.9) per 100,000 child years.