Cortical regulation of subcortical DA transmission While the stud

Cortical regulation of subcortical DA transmission While the studies reviewed above generally confirmed the classical DA hypothesis of schizophrenia, it is important to examine these results in light of the more recent views of selleckchem Axitinib schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental activator Ivacaftor illness, involving dysconnectivity of multiple

cortico-subcortical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and intracortical networks. While it cannot be definitively ruled out that the DA dysregulation revealed by these studies stems from a primary abnormality of DA neurons, it seems more likely that these abnormalities are a consequence of cortico-subcortical dysconnectivity. Moreover, given the weight, of evidence implicating PFC connectivity Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical as a central deficient node in the schizophrenic brain, it is tempting to speculate that a dysregulation of the firing activity of dopaminergic neurons might stem from a failure of the PFC to regulate this process. In fact, it has long been hypothesized that dysregulation of subcortical DA function in schizophrenia

may be secondary to a failure of the PFC to adequately control subcortical dopaminergic function.71,72 In patients with schizophrenia, a low N-acctylaspartate (NAA) concentration in the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), a marker of DLPFC pathology, is associated with increased amphetamine-induced DA release.73 This result, provides evidence Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical that, disinhibition of subcortical DA activity is associated with prefrontal pathology in schizophrenia. According to a model introduced by Carlsson,74 the activity of midbrain DA neurons is under dual influence of PFC via an activating pathway (the “accelerator”) and an inhibitory pathway (“the brake”), allowing fine tuning of dopaminergic activity by the PFC (Figure Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 2). The activating pathway is provided by indirect glutamatergic

projections onto the dopaminergic cells (indirect projections likely involve the pedunculopontine tegmentum75). The inhibitory pathway is provided by glutamatergic projections to midbrain GABAergic Carfilzomib interneurons or striatomesencephalic GABAergic neurons. The inhibition of dopaminergic cell firing following amphetamine is an important feedback mechanism by which the brain reduces the effect of amphetamine on DA release. The inhibition of dopaminergic cell firing induced by amphetamine is mediated both by stimulation of presynaptic D2 autoreceptors, and by stimulation of this inhibitory pathway.76 Figure 2. Model of modulation of ventral tegmental area dopamine (DA) cell activity by the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The activity of midbrain DA neurons is under the dual influence of PFC via activating and inhibitory pathways, allowing fine tuning of dopaminergic …

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *


You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>