d-AMPH and m-AMPH increased the crossing and rearing behaviors T

d-AMPH and m-AMPH increased the crossing and rearing behaviors. The numbers of visits to the center were increased by d-AMPH and m-AMPH only at 2 mg/kg. Likewise, at a high dose (2

mg/kg), the injection of m-AMPH increased the amount of sniffing. The AMPHs significantly decreased the activities Evofosfamide cell line of Krebs cycle enzymes (citrate synthase and succinate dehydrogenase) and mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes (I-IV); nevertheless, this effect varied depending on the brain region evaluated. In summary, this study demonstrated that at high doses, m-AMPH, increased stereotyped (sniffing) behavior in rats, but d-AMPH did not. However, this study shows that d-AMPH and m-AMPH seem to have similar effects on the brains energetic metabolism. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

“The possible association in schizophrenia between frontal abnormalities, such as hypofrontality and frontal grey matter (GM) deficits, and neuropsychological deficits is not yet well defined. Our objective was to study such an association and to clarify the cognitive relevance of metabolic OSI-906 ic50 and anatomical variability across schizophrenia patients. To do so, we studied dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPF) metabolism during an attention test using fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography and DLPF structure with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 22 schizophrenia patients 19 neuroleptic-naive (NN) first episodes]. These patients also underwent a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests aimed at evaluating global intelligence and the proposed domains of cognitive alteration in schizophrenia, i.e., attention, visual and verbal learning and memory, working memory, problem solving and processing Chloroambucil speed. The metabolic activity in the right DLPF region was significantly and directly related to processing speed, and a measure of structural deficit in the same area was directly related to working memory scores. In the NN group studied alone, these

associations were replicated. We may conclude that hypofrontality during cognitive activation, and the degree of DLPF structural deficit may be associated to a particular profile of cognitive deficit, including lower processing speed and working memory capacity. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Two lick suppression experiments using rats were conducted to determine whether extinction of a punctate excitor in a particular context would result in that context becoming a conditioned inhibitor, as defined by passing both summation and retardation tests. The role of extinction trial spacing was investigated as a possible determinant of whether the extinction context would become inhibitory.

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