e. urine collections for measurement of the melatonin metabolite 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s)]. Patients showed extremely impaired night sleep quality (Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index global score: 16.3 +/- A 2.1) and daytime sleepiness was common (Epworth Sleepiness Scale: 8.3 +/- A 3.2). Five patients were randomly assigned to a single room in which lighting was controlled in relation to timing,
spectral composition and intensity (lights on at 06:30 and off at 22:30, blue-enriched, more intense light in the morning, red-enriched, less intense light in the afternoon/evening); the others stayed in identical rooms with standard SNX-5422 molecular weight lighting. Sleep diaries revealed poor sleep quality, prolonged sleep latency (67 +/- A 138 min) and a reduced sleep efficiency (69 +/- A 21 %). These features were confirmed by actigraphy (sleep efficiency: 71 +/- A 13 %; fragmentation index: 55 +/- A 15 %). Quality of life was globally impaired, and mood moderately depressed (Beck Depression Inventory: 19.4 +/- A 7.9). Seven patients underwent serial urine collections: no circadian aMT6s rhythm was detected in any of them, neither at baseline, nor during the course of hospitalization in either room (n = 4). In conclusion, sleep and circadian rhythms in hospitalized, decompensated
patients with cirrhosis are extremely compromised. MG-132 Treatment with bright light therapy did not show obvious, beneficial effects, most likely in relation to the severity of disturbance at baseline.”
“Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes in the X protein (HBx) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) may play a key role in the viral control and liver damage. The aim of this study was to identify and study the function of HLA-A0201 restricted CTL epitopes in HBx of HBV genotypes B and C that are epidemic in China. Four nonapeptides signed HBx1: VLCLRPVGA, HBx2: CLFXDWEEL, HBx3: VLHKRTLGL, and HBx4: HLSLRGLPV were predicated by computational analysis
and manually confirmed by defining Linsitinib mouse the peptide supermotif, extended motif, and quantitative motif. Synthesized peptides were examined for their affinity and binding stability with HLA-A0201. After being analyzed by enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) and cytolytic activity assays, the HBx2 epitope was selected for a construction of HLA-A0201-peptide tetramers. The tetramer staining method was used to analyze peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from HBV-infected patients at different disease stages (chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatoma). Compared with CTL epitopes in the HBV envelope or polymerase, HBx2 is also a potential HLA-A0201 restricted CTL epitope, what may have a clinical implication.