Further experimental analysis will hopefully elucidate the detail

Further experimental analysis will hopefully elucidate the detailed regulatory relationship between SabR and nikkomycin biosynthesis. Conclusions In conclusion, this study presented detailed ICG-001 in vivo molecular and genetic analysis for sabR on the production of nikkomycin in S. ansochromogenes. The results revealed that the SabR regulated nikkomycin biosynthesis positively via interaction with the upstream region of sanG. Selleckchem Tipifarnib It might be useful to expand the limited understanding of regulation exerted by SabR. Methods Strains, plasmids, media and growth conditions The strains

and plasmids used in this study are listed in Table 2. Escherichia coli DH5α, BL21 (DE3), ET12567 (pUZ8002), and their derivative strains were grown at 37°C in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium containing necessary antibiotics for propagating plasmids. The nikkomycin producer, Streptomyces ansochromogenes 7100 and sabR disruption mutant were incubated at 28°C. For nikkomycin production, SP medium (3 % mannitol, 1 % soluble starch, 0.75 % yeast extract, and 0.5 % soy find more peptone, pH 6.0) was used. Liquid medium YEME and solid medium MM were prepared according to standard procedures

[33]. Alternaria longipes was used as indicator strain for nikkomycin bioassay and incubated at 28°C in PDA medium. The plasmid pUC119::kan, pET23b, pIJ8600 and their derivatives were collected in our lab. E. coli-Streptomyces shuttle vector pKC1139 used for gene disruption was kindly provided by Prof.

Keith Chater (John Innes Centre, Norwich, UK). Table 2 Strains and plasmids used in this study Strains or plasmids relevant characteristics Source or reference Strains     S. ansochromogenes 7100 Wild-type strain [40] sabRDM Interleukin-3 receptor The sabR disruption mutant [24] E. coli DH5α F- recA f80 dlacZ ΔM15 Gibco BRL BL21(DE3) F- ompT hsdS gal dcm (DE3) Novagen ET12567 (pUZ8002) recE dam dcm hsdS Cmr Strr Tetr Kmr [41] Alternaria longipes Indicator strain for nikkomycin bioassays [40] Plasmids     pBluescript KS+ Routine cloning and subcloning vector Stratagene pET23b Expression vector Novagen pET23b::sabR sabR gene cloned in pET23b This work pIJ8600 ori pUC, oriT RK2, int ΦC31, tipAp, tsr, apr R [33] pIJ8600::sabR sabR gene cloned in the induced vector of pIJ8600 which containing PtipA as promoter This work pKC1139 E.coli-Streptomyces shuttle vector [33] pGARE1 A 974 bp DNA fragment containing the left flank of SARE was inserted into pUC119::kan This work pGARE2 A 806 bp DNA fragment containing the right flank of SARE was inserted into GAREL1 This work pGARE3 A 2.8 kb DNA fragment containing the left and right flanks of SARE and kanamycin resistance gene from pGARE2 was inserted into pKC1139 This work pGARE4 The 1 kb kanamycin resistance gene was deleted from pGARE3 This work pGARE5 A 1.

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