In addition, c1 estimates for the tropical SD models are not stru

In addition, c1 estimates for the tropical SD models are not structured and have lower values than the temperate SD models, which demonstrate a lack of noticeable tendency in the differentiation of embryogenesis timing for the tropical strain. This corroborates the hypothesis that the diapause syndrome is responsible for the large embryonic developmental delay. The delay between traits appearance during embryonic development

of LD and SD temperate strains increases of approximately 10 h for each of the analyzed trait (Table A.3). This increase also seems not to be periodic but continuous during embryogenesis: whatever the strain and the maternal photoperiod considered, abdominal segmentation appeared among 61–65% of total embryogenesis and ocelli were formed among 82–89% of total embryogenesis (Table 2). Regardless of the morphological feature investigated in the selleck chemicals llc embryo, there are 4 constants: Firstly, temperate and tropical strains have different embryonic kinetics. Secondly, maternal photoperiod modifies the developmental

time in both strains, but to a larger extent in the temperate strain. Thirdly, for the temperate strain, females with LD conditions produce eggs with a faster embryonic development MG-132 clinical trial that female exposed to diapause-inducing photoperiod. Fourthly, in all test groups the studied traits (except the serosal cuticle) appeared at the same percentage of total development, although the entire embryo development period differs among strains and temperate photoperiods. These results argue in favor of the effect of a progressive diapause preparation process rather than

just punctual changes in the embryonic program of the temperate strain. Based on a detailed morphological analysis, we demonstrated for the first time the modulation of embryonic developmental rate due to diapause preparation in A. albopictus eggs. The preparation stage of diapause Dynein syndrome implies numerous physiological adaptations which necessarily involve an energetic investment. Recent transcriptional works already suggested the existence of a developmental delay of embryos during diapause preparation: a delayed expression of cell-cycle regulators and genes in diapausing SD eggs compared to LD eggs was put in evidence in a US temperate strain of A. albopictus ( Poelchau et al., 2013a). However, these delays in physiological processes were not correlated to visible morphological differences in the development ( Reynolds et al., 2012 and Poelchau et al., 2013a). Hence, regardless of the origin of the strain, embryogenesis is also slightly sensitive to the maternal photoperiod. The embryonic time varies between tropical and temperate strains. Both strains have been crossed and gave a viable and fertile offspring, confirming that tropical and temperate strains are of the same species, as it was already attested on other strains (Hanson et al., 1993). Globally, at lower temperatures tropical strains of A.

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