In the current study, we constructed both normal and cooperative binding models of human CYP3A4 with antifungal drug ketoconazoles (KLN). Molecular dynamics simulation and free energy calculation were then carried out to study the cooperative
binding mechanism. Our simulation showed that the second KLN in the cooperative binding model had a positive impact on the first one binding in the selleck screening library active site by two significant pi-pi stacking interactions. The first one was formed by Phe215, functioning to position the first KLN in a favorable orientation in the active site for further metabolism reactions. The second one was contributed by Phe304. This pi-pi stacking was enhanced in the cooperative binding model by the parallel conformation between the aromatic rings in Phe304 and the dioxolan moiety of the first KLN. These findings can provide an atomic insight into the cooperative binding in CYP3A4, revealing a novel pi-pi stacking mechanism for drug-drug interactions.”
“Background: Previous studies have reported possible predictors of drug-eluting stent thrombosis (ST), but data for Asians are relatively limited. This study was performed to elucidate clinical predictors of ST in Koreans.\n\nMethods and Results: From May 2003
to May 2007, consecutive Apoptosis inhibitor patients presenting with ST were enrolled from 10 cardiovascular centers in Korea. They were compared with 2,192 controls (3,223 lesions) who had received percutaneous coronary intervention with at least 6 months of follow-up without ST. On multivariate analysis, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) as Selleckchem MK2206 initial diagnosis, drug-eluting stents (DES) in-stent restenosis (ISR), low ejection fraction (EF), small stent diameter, left anterior descending artery intervention, and young age were independent predictors of total ST. When divided into early (ST within 30 days of index procedure) and delayed
ST (ST after 30 days of index procedure), low EF, small stent diameter, DES ISR and AMI as initial diagnosis were universal risks for both early and delayed ST. The time from antiplatelet agent discontinuation to ST occurrence was significantly shorter in late compared with very late ST.\n\nConclusions: Predictors of ST may be slightly different for early vs. delayed ST. However, low EF, small stent diameter, DES ISR lesion, and AMI as initial diagnosis were universal risk factors for both early and delayed ST cases. The relationship between antiplatelet agent discontinuation and ST occurrence seems stronger in late compared with very late ST.