Learning had potential error. We also examined the transfer of categorical behaviour between individuals with random directionality and two forms of error, the adoption of a randomly chosen existing behavioural category or the innovation of a new type of behaviour. In populations without social structuring the diversity
of culturally transmitted behaviour increased with learning error and population size. When the populations Gemcitabine chemical structure were structured socially either by making individuals members of permanent social units or by giving them overlapping ranges, behavioural diversity increased with network modularity under all scenarios, although the proportional increase varied considerably between continuous and categorical behaviour, TPCA-1 chemical structure with transmission mechanism, and population size. Although functions of the form e(c1m-c2+c3log(N)) predicted the mean increase in diversity with modularity (m) and population size (N), behavioural diversity could be highly unpredictable both between simulations with the same set of parameters, and within runs. Errors in social learning and social structuring generally promote behavioural diversity. Consequently, social learning may be considered to produce culture in populations whose social structure is sufficiently
modular. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Intermittent treatment of rats with psychomotor stimulants induces behavioral sensitization to their motor-stimulating effects. This sensitization involves an increase in mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine release, and in male rats, facilitates sexual behavior.
The aim of this study is to investigate
the effect of repeated injections of d-amphetamine on appetitive and consummatory sexual behaviors in female rats.
Sexually experienced or na < ve females were injected with either d-amphetamine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline every other day for three injections each. After each amphetamine injection, females were placed either in a bilevel testing chamber or in their home cages. After saline injections, females were placed in bilevel chambers. Following a 3-week washout www.selleck.cn/products/azd1080.html period, females were tested for sexual behavior in bilevel chambers in a drug-free state.
Amphetamine pre-exposure facilitated the display of solicitations, hops and darts, and female-male mounting (FMM), regardless of whether the drug was paired with the testing environment.
Intermittent amphetamine pretreatment that induces behavioral sensitization facilitates appetitive sexual behaviors in female rats, as has been shown previously in male rats. This suggests that the physiological substrates that modulate sensitized responses to psychomotor stimulants also mediate sensitized appetitive responses to sexual cues, including solicitation, hops and darts, and FMM.