Mice that received ATRA during Ad5gp vaccination were more resistant to intravaginal challenge by recombinant vaccinia virus expressing LCMVgp (VVgp), reflecting in part stronger T cell
recall responses in situ. Thus, ATRA appears to be useful as an adjuvant during vaccination to increase memory T cell responses and protection from viral infection at mucosal sites and may facilitate the development of more effective vaccines against mucosally transmitted pathogens such as HIV.”
“Video cameras have a single temporal limit set by the frame rate. The human visual system has multiple temporal limits set by its various constituent mechanisms. These limits seem to form two groups. A fast group comprises specialized mechanisms for extracting perceptual qualities such as motion direction, depth and edges. The second group, with coarse temporal resolution, 8-Bromo-cAMP in vitro includes judgments find more of the pairing of color and motion, the joint identification of arbitrary spatially separated features, the recognition of words and high-level motion.
These temporally coarse percepts might all be mediated by high-level processes. Working at very different timescales, the two groups of mechanisms collaborate to create our unified visual experience.”
“Dysfunction in central glucocorticoid signaling is implicated in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis dysregulation and major depression. In comparison with men, women are twice as likely to suffer
from depression and have heightened HPA axis responses to stress. We hypothesized that this striking increase in stress vulnerability in females may be because of sex differences in central glucocorticoid signaling. The current study tests the role of the forebrain type II glucocorticoid receptor (GR) on HPA axis function in female mice and depression-like behavior in both female and male mice. This was accomplished HKI-272 solubility dmso by using mice with selective deletion of GR in forebrain cortico-limbic sites including the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and basolateral amygdala (forebrain glucocorticoid receptor knockout mouse (FBGRKO)). In order to examine HPA axis function in female FBGRKO, we measured nadir, peak circadian and restraint-induced corticosterone concentrations in female FBGRKO. The data indicate that unlike male FBGRKO, basal and stress-induced corticosterone concentrations are not increased in female FBGRKO. Given the pronounced effect of central glucocorticoid signaling on mood, we also examined the necessity of corticolimbic GR on depression-like behavior with the sucrose preference and forced swim tests (FST) in male and female FBGRKO mice.