mutans cell number in (A) check details dental plaque from caries-free patients (n=24) and (B) carious dentin (n=21) as assessed by PMA-qPCR. All data were calculated three times, and the mean values were plotted. X = log10x, where x is the viable cell number in dental plaque (A) or carious dentin (B). Y = log10y, where y is the viable cell number in saliva. Application of PMA-qPCR for monitoring live bacteria in biofilm and the planktonic phase One purpose for the development of this assay was to monitor the viable cell number in biofilm. To evaluate the S. mutans cell number in both planktonic
and biofilm forms, the cells were exposed to various concentrations of H2O2. In the planktonic phase, the number of viable S. mutans cells in 0.0003% H2O2 was only 10.0% of the number see more in H2O2-untreated cells, whereas the number in 0.003% H2O2 was 34.7% of that in H2O2-untreated cells (Figure 7A). There was a significant difference in the viable/total cell ratio Selleck QNZ between 0% and 0.0003% H2O2 (Bonferroni test;
p < 0.05) and between 0% and 0.003% H2O2 (Bonferroni test; p < 0.01). In biofilm, the number of viable S. mutans cells in 0.0003% H2O2 was 88.6% of the number in H2O2-untreated cells, whereas that in 0.003% H2O2 was 58.9% of that in H2O2-untreated cells (Figure 7B). There was no significant difference in the viable/total cell ratio between 0% and 0.0003% H2O2 or between 0% and 0.003% H2O2. Figure 7 Monitoring the ratio of viable cell number to total cell number for S. mutans in (A) planktonic cells and (B) biofilms, by PMA-qPCR. Both planktonic cells and biofilms were treated with 0–0.003% H2O2 for 24 h. The mean ± S.D. almost values of independent triplicate data are shown. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01. Discussion Streptococcus mutans and S. sobrinus are considered to be cariogenic pathogens in humans . Various studies have monitored the prevalence of caries-related organisms
in oral specimens . However, attempts to differentiate between viable and dead bacteria in oral specimens in relation to dental caries have not been reported. In the present study, we initially developed a quantification method for discriminating live and dead cariogenic bacteria, specifically for S. mutans and S. sobrinus. Previous investigations have reported that EMA has a strong inhibitory effect on the amplification of genomic DNA from viable cells , and our study confirmed that EMA itself decreases cell viability. Therefore, all experiments were conducted with PMA, which penetrates a damaged cell membrane and intercalates into DNA, resulting in the inhibition of PCR, in combination with qPCR to quantitatively differentiate between viable and dead cells. We further performed a spiking experiment to evaluate whether this assay was applicable to oral specimens. In general, obtaining oral specimens that do not contain S. mutans is challenging, whereas obtaining S. sobrinus-free oral samples is relatively easy.