One obvious finding based on proteomic data was that the amounts

One obvious finding based on proteomic data was that the amounts of several

extracellular modulators of Wnt and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling changed during adipogenesis. The expressions of secreted frizzled-related proteins, dickkopf-related proteins, and latent TGF-beta-binding proteins were found to be altered during adipogenesis, which suggests that they participate in the fine regulation of Wnt and TGF-beta signaling. This study provides useful tools and important clues regarding the roles of secretory factors during adipogenic differentiation, and provides information related to obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases.”
“Mature angiosperm

seeds consist of an Enzalutamide in vitro embryo surrounded MM-102 molecular weight by the endosperm and the testa. The endosperm cap that covers the radicle plays a regulatory role during germination and is a major target of abscisic acidinduced inhibition of germination. Cress (Lepidium sativum) is a close relative of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). Cress seeds offer the unique possibility of performing tissue-specific proteomics due to their larger size while benefiting the genomic tools available for Arabidopsis. This work provides the first description of endosperm cap proteomics during seed germination. An analysis of the proteome of the cress endosperm cap at key stages during germination and after

radicle protrusion in the presence and absence of abscisic acid led to the identification of 144 proteins, which were clustered by the changes in their abundances and categorized by function. Proteins with a function in energy production, protein stability and stress response were overrepresented among the identified endosperm cap proteins. This strongly suggests that the cress endosperm cap is not a storage tissue as the cereal endosperm but a metabolically very active tissue regulating the rate of radicle protrusion.”
“To gain those more insights into the translational and PTM that occur in rat offspring exposed to alcohol in utero, 2-D PAGE with total, phospho- and glycoprotein staining and MALDI-MS/MS and database searching were conducted. The results, based on fold-change expression, revealed a down-regulation of total protein expression by prenatal alcohol exposure in 7-day-old and 3-month-old rats. There was an up-regulation of protein phosphorylation but a down-regulation of glycosylation by prenatal alcohol exposure in both age groups. Of 31. protein spots examined per group, differentially expressed proteins were identified as ferritin light chain, aldo-keto reductase, tumor rejection antigen gp96, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, and gamma-actin.

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