Photosynth Res (this issue) Kulik L, Lubitz W (2009) Electron–nuc

Photosynth Res (this issue) Kulik L, Raf inhibitor Lubitz W (2009) Electron–nuclear double resonance. Photosynth Res (this issue) Levitt MH (2008) Spin dynamics. Basics of nuclear magnetic resonance. Wiley, Chichester Matysik J, Diller A, Roy E, Alia A (2009) The solid-state photo-CIDNP effect. Photosynth Res (this issue) Owenius R, Engström M, Lindgren M, Huber M (2001) Influence RGFP966 of solvent polarity and hydrogen bonding on the EPR parameters of a nitroxide

spin label studied by 9-GHz and 95-GHz EPR spectroscopy and DFT calculations. J Phys Chem A 105:10967–10977CrossRef Plato M, Steinhoff HJ, Wegener C, Törring JT, Savitsky A, Möbius K (2002) Molecular orbital study of polarity and hydrogen bonding effects on the g and hyperfine tensors of site directed NO spin labelled bacteriorhodopsin. Mol Phys 100:3711–3721CrossRef Savitzky A, Möbius K (2009)

High-field EPR. Photosynth Res (this issue) Schweiger A, Jeschke selleck screening library G (2001) Principles of pulse electron paramagnetic resonance. Oxford University Press, Oxford Slichter CP (1996) Principles of magnetic resonance. Springer, Berlin van der Est A (2009) Transient EPR: using spin polarization in sequential radical pairs to study electron transfer in photosynthesis. Photosynth Res (this issue) van Gastel M (2009) Pulsed EPR spectroscopy. Photosynth Res (this issue) Weil JA, Bolton JR (2007) Electron paramagnetic resonance: elementary theory and practical applications. Wiley, Chichester”
“Introduction The availability of water is one of the major factors that affects plant production, yield, and reproductive success. Water is needed to allow transpiration, CO2 uptake, photosynthesis, and growth. For example, in herbaceous plants the water content is around 95% and most of the mechanical strength is provided by cells that are rigid only because

they are filled with water. Water is passively transported inside plant xylem conduits (vessels and tracheids) in the continuum between soil and atmosphere along a water potential gradient, generated by evaporation. The hydraulic conductivity of the root, stem, and leaves, together with the plants’ stomatal regulation, defines the water potential gradients that exist between leaf and root. When this gradient becomes too steep selleckchem it causes damage either by dehydration of living cells or by cavitation due to tensions (negative pressures) in the water columns of the xylem being too high (Sperry et al. 2002; Mencuccini 2003). Mechanisms are needed to maintain this gradient within a non-damaging range. The most important mechanism is the regulation of the stomatal aperture or stomatal conductance, g s, in the leaves, by increasing the resistance for water vapor leaving the leaves into the atmosphere with lower water content. Changes in g s will directly affect the uptake of CO2, needed for photosynthesis.

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