“Pulvinaria urbicola Cockerell,

a pulvinariine sof

“Pulvinaria urbicola Cockerell,

a pulvinariine soft scale (Hemiptera: Coccidae), is a broad host-plant generalist, produces honeydew and is commonly tended by ants, including the invasive yellow crazy ant Anoplolepis gracilipes Smith and big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala (Fabricius). Pu. urbicola is implicated in dieback of forest dominated by Pisonia grandis (Nyctaginaceae) on many Indo-Pacific islands. Here we report detection of Pu. urbicola on Christmas DNA Damage inhibitor Island (Indian Ocean), describe the potential impacts of the association of this trophobiont with introduced ants, and briefly outline biosecurity and management issues. On Christmas Island, Pu. urbicola represents a threat to stands of Pi. grandis, potentially threatens the dominant forest tree Pi. umbellifera, and could exacerbate supercolony

formation and impacts of the yellow crazy ant. (C) 2013 Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The aim of the present study was investigate the impact of seawater immersion on peripheral nerve injury and the underlying mechanisms. A total of 234 specific pathogen-free Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into a sham group, injury control group and seawater immersion + injury group. The Sciatic Functional Index (SFI) was used to assess nerve function for 6 weeks after injury. Compound muscle action potentials were measured and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of nerve specimens was carried out at week 6. Levels of reactive Dinaciclib cost oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in nerve tissues were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA and protein were measured by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The SFI value in the seawater immersion + injury group after 6 weeks was lower

than that in the injury control group (P smaller than 0.05). The compound muscle action potential in the seawater SCH727965 immersion + injury group had a prolonged latency, and the amplitude and nerve conduction velocity were decreased compared with those in the other groups (P smaller than 0.05). H&E staining demonstrated that nerve fiber regeneration was worse in the seawater immersion + injury group. The ROS and MDA levels in the seawater immersion + injury group were higher than those in the other groups (P smaller than 0.05). The expression levels of iNOS mRNA and protein gradually increased in the injury and seawater immersion + injury groups and peaked at 48 h after surgery. Immersion in seawater further aggravated sciatic nerve injury and led to worse neuronal recovery. The mechanism may be associated with oxidative stress.

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