raciborskii capable of the CYN synthesis (Neilan et al., 2003; Haande et al., 2008; Antal et al., 2011). However, CYN was detected in Finland (Spoof et al., 2006), Germany (Fastner et al., 2007; Wiedner et al., 2008), the Czech Republic (Bláhová
et al., 2008, 2009), Poland (Kokociński et al., 2009), France (Brient et al., 2009) and Italy (Messineo et al., 2010). In these cases, microscopic analysis indicated that suggested species Selleck Adriamycin of cyanobacteria that could produce CYN included: Anabaena lapponica in Finland (Spoof et al., 2006); Aphanizomenon sp., Aphanizomenon gracile, Aphanizomenon flos-aque and/or Anabaena sp. in Germany (Fastner et al., 2007; Wiedner et al., 2008); Aphanizomenon sp. including Aph. klebahnii in the Czech Republic (Bláhová et al., 2008, 2009); Aph. gracile and/or C. raciborskii in Poland (Kokociński et al., 2009); Aph. flos-aque and Anabaena planctonica in France (Brient et al., 2009); Aphanizomenon ovalisporum and/or C. raciborskii in Italy (Messineo et al., 2010). In further research, the possibility of using molecular analysis has allowed to determine toxigenic strains of cyanobacteria responsible for CYN production (Haande et al., 2008; Stüken & Jakobsen, 2010). However, in Europe, this information is still
poor. Preußel et al. (2006) determined three single filaments of toxigenic Aph. flos-aque in two German lakes based on the presence of ps gene sequences. Description of the toxigenic strain of Oscillatoria from the Tarn River in France was based on the presence of cyrJ X-396 gene (Mazmouz et al., 2010). Additionally, that study indicated a high homology to cyr genes previously identified for C. raciborskii strains isolated from Australian water bodies (Mihali et al., 2008). The presence of cyr genes (cyrA/aoaA and cyrB/aoaB) was also confirmed for the strains of Aphanizomenon sp. in Germany (Stüken & Jakobsen, 2010). Recently, CYN synthetase gene (pks) was detected in one of the samples contained C. raciborskii
from the Vela Lake in Portugal (Moreira et al., 2011). However, the presence of CYN was not described. In Poland, as it has already been mentioned, the presence of CYN was described in two shallow eutrophic lakes: Bytyńskie cAMP (BY) and Bnińskie (BN) located in the western part of the country (Kokociński et al., 2009). Microscopic analysis indicated Aph. gracile and/or C. raciborskii as potential producers of CYN in the studied water samples. In the present study, in which the genetic analyses were used for the first time (to the best of our knowledge), the previous research has been followed up to confirm and develop this theory. The possibility of using cyrJ gene for early warning of CYN-producing cyanobacteria was also tested. Moreover, the objective of the study included an analysis of genetic identity of Polish cyanobacterial samples with known genomic sequences of CYN-producing cyanobacteria based on cyrJ gene product and characterization of the strain of C.