ratti larvae (96), establishing S  stercoralis infections in mice

ratti larvae (96), establishing S. stercoralis infections in mice to test the efficacy of anthelmintics in vivo and for modelling aspects of strongyloidiasis in humans (10,97,98), including the consequences of immunosuppression, which can result in fulminant infections in humans carrying silent infections for decades (99). Stage-specific expression of antigens was assessed

in both S. ratti and S. stercoralis with some shared immunoreactivity being noted for learn more partially characterized proteins (11,100–102). These studies provide useful groundwork for modern proteomic analysis of these (103) and other species of parasitic nematodes, a field which should be greatly enhanced by advances in genomic analysis (104–107). H. bakeri provides an interesting experimental counterpart to N. brasiliensis and S. ratti. H. bakeri is also a parasite of the gut, but infects via the faecal–oral route. H. bakeri has a more limited tissue-invasive phase, localizing first in the mucosa of the stomach and then in the Selleck CDK inhibitor muscularis externa of the duodenum,

emerging into the gut lumen by approximately day 8 pi. H. bakeri is somewhat immunosuppressive in mice (108), infections are typically of long duration and are not easily cleared. There is a long but intermittent history of research with H. bakeri in Australia. Colin Dobson (University of Queensland) and his colleagues, including Paul Brindley and Don McManus (Queensland Institute for Medical Research), have published a large body of work on H. bakeri over more than 37 years. Peter Ey, with Charles Jenkins, Steve Prowse, Imi Pentilla and other colleagues at the University of Adelaide also oxyclozanide published many significant contributions from 1977 to 1988. Much of this work has been directed

at the host–parasite relationship (109,110), including examination of stage-specific antigens, the nature of protective immunity (111,112), identification of resistant and sensitive hosts (113) and breeding for host resistance to the parasite (114,115). Passive immunity can be transferred with immune serum (116,117) and is T cell-dependent (118). Ey’s group showed innate effector mechanisms to be protective, with the alternative pathway of complement activation mediating leucocyte adherence of neutrophils and eosinophils to larvae in vitro and subsequently, reduced infectivity (117,119–122). Larval infectivity is reduced following incubation in immune serum, with stunting of adult worms a consequence (123). Dobson’s group characterized stage-specific expression of antigens and ES antigens from adult H. bakeri (124,125) and showed that vaccination with some of these induces protective immunity (126,127). Ey characterized L3 ES antigens, demonstrating stunting of larvae treated with antibodies raised against these antigens (128,129). Parasites selected in mice immunized by repeated infections survive by subverting cellular immunity (130).

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