The correlation coefficients between model simulated and satellit

The correlation coefficients between model simulated and satellite observed NO2 column buy Flavopiridol densities, SO2 column densities and AOD over east China are 0.90, 0.85

and 0.79, and the normalized mean bias (NMBs) are -8%, 1%, and -8% respectively, which are comparable with the errors from satellite retrievals. The surface concentrations of NO2, SO2, and PM10 given by CMAQ model are also comparable with those observed in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, with the NMBs ranging from 1% to -18%, -3% to -25%, and -12% to 18%, respectively. The results suggest that the anthropogenic emissions of SO2, NOx, and PM10 used in this study are in line with both the satellite and ground observations therefore are of acceptable accuracy. There is overestimation for SO2 and underestimation for PM10 in some industry-intensive areas because of the inaccuracy of spatial and temporal allocations. The CMAQ model also significantly underestimates the PM2.5 concentration in Beijhjing, mainly due to the limitation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation mechanism used in the model and the underestimation of primary OC and EC emissions. Therefore

more efforts shall be made to improve the primary emission estimates of OC and EC, as well as the temporal allocation factor of SO2 and PM10 emissions. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Biodegradable polylactide AZD2014 (PLA) nanofibers containing silver nanoparticles were prepared by electrospinning. Solutions of PLA in dichloromethane/N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) with

different amounts of silver nitrate (AgNO(3)) were used to spin nanofibers. DMAc was used as a reducing agent for Ag(+) ions in the PLA solution. In the dilute solution system, the intrinsic viscosity URMC-099 mouse and Huggins constant of the PLA/Ag solutions decreased at AgNO(3) concentrations < 6 wt% whereas they increased at 9 wt% AgNO(3). On the other hand, dichloromethane/DMAc was found to be a good solvent with a similar solvating power to the Huggins constant results. The solution properties of the viscosity and electrical conductivity of the spinning solutions are strongly affected by the addition of AgNO(3). The mean diameters of the PLA/Ag nanofibers containing 0, 3, 6 and 9 wt% of AgNO(3) were 400.9 +/- 0.1, 352.6 +/- 0.3, 313.1 +/- 0.2 and 482.8 +/- 0.2 nm, respectively. The silver nanoparticles contributed to the formation of thinner PLA/Ag nanofibers. When the PLA nanofibers contained 6 wt% AgNO(3), silver nanoparticles with an average size of 4.9 nm were distributed homogeneously in the PLA nanaofibers.”
“Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium is an established model organism for Gram-negative, intracellular pathogens. Owing to the rapid spread of resistance to antibiotics among this group of pathogens, new approaches to identify suitable target proteins are required.

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