The performances of the TBI participants and normal controls resp

The performances of the TBI participants and normal controls respectively on autobiographical fluency according to the time period tested were assessed by a repeated measures ANOVA, which revealed a significant effect of Group F(1, 16) = 21.57, η2p = .57, p < .0001, reflecting the

TBI participants being less fluent than Nutlin-3 price the controls, but no significant effect of Temporal Direction F(1, 16) = 0.69 or Temporal Distance F(1, 16) = 1.48. Post hoc tests showed that the TBI participants were less spontaneous in generating past and future event representations compared with controls independently of the temporal direction and time period tested. Participants’ reported levels of their selleck compound subjective sense of re-/pre-experience and their subjective sense of mental time travel showed a different pattern from the objective ratings. Separate 2 (Group: TBI vs. controls) × 2 (Temporal Direction: past vs. future) × 3

(Temporal Distance: 1 month, 5 years, or 10 years) mixed-factor analyses of variance (ANOVA) were carried out for each phenomenal characteristic. Concerning the subjective feeling of re-/pre-experience associated with remembering/imagining, no group difference was seen, F(1, 16) = 0.04. For both groups, sense of re-/pre-experience of the event was affected by Temporal Direction F(1, 16) = 7.82, η2p = .38, p < .05 and Temporal Distance F(1, 16) = 7.19, η2p = .36, p < .01, with higher ratings in the past condition than in the future condition, and in memories/future thoughts closest to the present. With respect to ratings Loperamide of sense of mental time travel, no effect of Group was seen, F(1, 16) = 1.49. Feeling of travelling in time was affected by Temporal Direction F(1, 16) = 6.32, η2p = .33, p < .05 with higher ratings in the past condition than the future condition independent of the Temporal Distance

to the present, F(1, 16) = 0.69. The fact that no difference was found between the ratings of the controls and TBI patients in contrast to the marked differences seen on the objective measures of episodic details suggests that the subjective ratings of the patients may have been unrealistically high. This study was conducted to address a critical gab within the mental time travel literature by investigating whether TBI patient exhibit impairments in the ability to engage in episodic future thinking. If episodic future thinking relies on the same processes and structures as remembering past events, as commonly proposed (e.g., D’Argembeau & Van der Linden, 2004; Okuda et al., 2003; Schacter & Addis, 2007), then it would follow that damage that impairs episodic memory should also impair the ability to imagine events in the future.

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