These results are consistent with experimental studies that show

These results are consistent with experimental studies that show formation of CO and CO2 in graphite oxidation and preferential etching on (111) CVD diamond surfaces in comparison with (100) surfaces.”
“In liquid water, hydrogen bonds form three-dimensional network structures, which until have been modeled in various molecular dynamics simulations. Locally, the hydrogen bonds continuously form and break, and the network structure continuously fluctuates. In aqueous solutions, the water molecules perturb the solute molecules, resulting in fluctuations of the electronic and vibrational states. These thermal fluctuations are fundamental to understanding the activation processes in chemical reactions and the function of biopolymers.

In this Account, we review studies of the vibrational frequency fluctuations Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of solute molecules in aqueous solutions using three-pulse Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries infrared photon echo experiments. For comparison, we also briefly describe dynamic fluorescence Stokes shift experiments for investigating solvation dynamics in water. The Stokes shift technique gives a response function, which describes the energy relaxation in the nonequilibrium Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries state and corresponds to the transition energy fluctuation of the electronic state at thermal equilibrium in linear response theorem. The dielectric response of water in the megahertz to terahertz frequency region is a key physical quantity for understanding both of these frequency fluctuations because of the influence of electrostatic interactions between the solute and solvent.

We focus on the temperature dependence Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of the three experiments to discuss the molecular mechanisms of both the frequency fluctuations in aqueous solutions.

We used a biexponential function with sub-picosecond and picosecond time constants to characterize the time-correlation functions of both the vibrational and electronic frequency fluctuations. We focus on the slower component, with time constants of 1-2 ps for both the frequency fluctuations at room temperature. However, the temperature dependence and isotope effect for the time constants differ for these two types of fluctuations. The dielectric interactions generally describe the solvation dynamics of polar solvents, and hydrodynamic theory can describe the slow Drug_discovery component for the electronic states.

Compared with the slow component of the solvation dynamics, however, the picosecond component for the vibrational frequency fluctuations is less sensitive to temperature. Therefore, the slow component of the vibrational frequency fluctuation is determined by different underlying Tipifarnib myeloid dynamics, which are important for the solvation dynamics of the electronic state. The time constant for the picosecond component for the vibrational frequency fluctuation does not significantly depend on the solute.

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