We therefore cannot draw strong conclusions about the relationship between behavioral changes following early life stress and DNA methylation. Despite this, we provide compelling evidence that both behavior and DNA methylation in candidate genes differ following early life stress, and further research is needed to uncover the extent of causality between these two measures. Avp, Nr3c1, and Nr4a1 have all been shown to
play a role in the regulation of the HPA axis. Our study finds increased DNA methylation of CpG sites in Avp and Nr3c1, and decreased methylation in Nr4a1. It is conceivable that differential methylation of these genes could result in dysregulation of the HPA axis during development, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical leading to altered stress behaviors in adulthood. In concordance with this, we find that MS mice showed differential stress reactivity in a number of behavioral tasks, and C57BL/6J mice experience a Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical greater physiological stress response. A key finding of our study is the effect of genetic background both on the behavioral and DNA methylation differences seen between groups. By using two different inbred strains of mice, we observed phenotypic and epigenetic changes that are potentially genotype-specific. It has PI3K Inhibitor Library molecular weight previously been reported that inbred strains vary in their emotional and stress reactivity (Flint 2003; Lad et al. 2010), and additionally Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical that their
sensitivity to early life stress may vary to a similar extent (Holmes et al. 2005). Consistent with this, our results suggest that DBA/2J mice develop phenotypic changes to early life stress that are not seen in the C57BL/6J strain, whereas male C57BL/6J mice show an altered physiological response to stress following MS. Importantly, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the DNA methylation differences found were also often strain-specific. Taken together, these findings highlight the importance of examining environmental effects on a range of genetic backgrounds, allowing the further Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical dissection of environmental, genetic,
and epigenetic interactions.
Pharmacotherapy and cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) are major treatment options for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Although these treatments have been continuously improved for several decades, there are still limitations (Taylor 2005; Bonchek 2009; Maher et al. 2010). It takes more than 12 weeks of pharmacotherapy to obtain significant clinical response (Greist et al. 1995). Up to 60% of OCD patients do not respond adequately to pharmacotherapy and are considered to be resistant Thiamine-diphosphate kinase to pharmacotherapy (Bjorgvinsson et al. 2007). Controlled trials combining pharmacotherapy with CBT demonstrate no clear advantage over CBT alone (Cottraux et al. 1990; Foa et al. 2005; Sousa et al. 2006). CBT for OCD, an exposure-based strategy integrated with cognitive therapy, usually takes 14–20 weeks and emphasizes education about anxiety psychopathology and repeated exposure to fear-eliciting cues (March and Mulle 1998).