After anodization, the samples were washed with DI water to remov

After anodization, the samples were washed with DI water to remove the occluded ions and dried in a N2 stream. Finally, the samples were annealed at 450°C for 2 h with a heating rate of 5°C min-1 at ambient conditions. Synthesis of CdS-coated TNTs CdS as an inorganic photon absorption material was deposited on TNTs by sequential CBD. Briefly, the as-prepared TNTs were successively immersed in four different beakers for about 40 s each: beakers contained a 50 mM cadmium chloride (CdCl2) (98.0%; Sigma-Aldrich) aqueous solution and a

50 mM sodium sulfide nonahydrate (Na2S) (98.0% purity; Sigma-Aldrich) aqueous solution, respectively, and the other two contained DI water to wash the samples to remove the excess of each precursor. WH-4-023 price The CBD process was performed by dipping the prepared TNTs in CdCl2 aqueous solution, rinsing it with DI water, dipping it in Na2S aqueous solution, followed by a further rinsing with DI water. The two-step dipping procedure is considered as one CBD cycle. After several cycles, the sample became yellow. In this study, 10, 20, and 30 cycles of CdS deposition were performed (denoted as CdS(10), CdS(20), and CdS(30), respectively). The as-prepared samples were dried in a N2 stream. The TNT sample after n cycles of CdS deposition was denoted as CdS(n)/TNTs. Autophagy Compound Library molecular weight Finally, the CdS(n)/TNT powder was

peeled off from the Ti sheets by bending them. Fabrication of devices The photovoltaic device has a structure of ITO/nc-TiO2/P3HT:PCBM (CdS/TNTs)/MoO3/Ag (P3HT, 95 + % regioregular, electronic grade, Luminescence Technology Co., Hsin-Chu, Taiwan; PCBM, 99.5 + %, Luminescence Technology Co.) as shown schematically in Figure  1a. The ITO-conducting glass substrate (a sheet resistance of 15 Ω/□) was pre-cleaned using acetone, Meloxicam ethanol, and DI water for 15 min

each. Anatase phase TiO2 thin films was prepared as described in our previous papers [26, 27]. The thickness of TiO2 is 25 nm. P3HT (used as received) was dissolved in 1,2-dichlorobenzene to produce an 18-mg/ml solution, followed by blending with PCBM (used as received) in 1:1 weight ratio [28]. The blend was divided into four equal parts after being stirred for 72 h in air. Then, the same see more quality of CdS(n)/TNTs (n = 10, 20, 30) powder was dispersed in the blend to produce a 1-mg/ml solution, respectively. Simultaneously, there was one equal part which did not contain CdS(n)/TNTs (denoted as CdS(0)/TNTs). The blend was ultrasonically disrupted for 2 h in air and then was continuously stirred before spin coating on top of the TiO2 film surface. Then, the samples were baked in low vacuum (vacuum oven) at 150°C for 10 min. The typical film thickness of P3HT:PCBM (CdS(n)/TNTs) was about 100 nm. Finally, 1 nm of MoO3 and 100 nm of Ag were thermally evaporated in sequence under high vacuum (5 × 10-4 Pa) without disrupting the vacuum. The deposition rate was about 0.

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