aureus is currently underway Methods Collection of organisms Cal

aureus is currently underway. Methods Collection of organisms Calkinsia aureus was collected using a Soutar box corer or MC-800 multi corer from the sea floor sediment (580 – 592 m in depth) of the Santa Barbara Basin, California, USA in September of 2007 and June of 2008. Sediment core samples were collected on the R/V Robert Gordon Sproul. Some sediment samples were immediately fixed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with an equal volume of 4% (v/v) glutaraldehyde in 0.2 M sodium cacodylate buffer (SCB) (pH 7.2) and stored at 4°C. The

remaining Selleckchem Epacadostat sediment samples were stored in 50 ml plastic tubes at 4°C and subsequently processed for light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and DNA extraction. Light and electron microscopy Light micrographs of over 100 living cells were taken using a Zeiss Axioplan 2 imaging microscope and a Leica DC500 digital chilled CCD camera. Cells of C. aureus were prepared for SEM by mixing an equal volume of fixative solution containing 4% (v/v) glutaraldehyde in 0.2 M SCB (pH 7.2) at room temperature. The fixed

cells were mounted on polycarbonate Millipore filters (13-mm diam., 5-μm pore size) or glass plates coated with poly-L-lysine at room temperature for 1 hr. The cells were rinsed with 0.1 M SCB and fixed in 1% osmium tetroxide for 30 min. The osmium-fixed cells were then rinsed with 0.1 M SCB and dehydrated with a graded ethanol series from 30% to absolute ethanol before being critical point dried with CO2 using a Tousimis Critical Point Dryer. Palbociclib nmr The dried cells were then coated with gold using a Cressington 208HR High Resolution Sputter Coater, and observed with a Hitachi S-4700 field emission scanning electron microscope. Cells of C. aureus prepared for TEM were kept in fixative solution for two months before being individually isolated from the surrounding sediment in the sample. Isolated cells were rinsed with 0.2 M SCB (pH 7.2) three times and then fixed in 1% (w/v) osmium tetroxide in 0.2 M SCB (pH 7.2) at room temperature for 1 hr before being dehydrated through a graded series of

ethanol Staurosporine chemical structure and 100% acetone. The dehydrated cells were then infiltrated with acetone-Epon 812 resin mixtures and 100% resin. Individual cells were flat embedded and serial sectioned in different orientations (i.e. transverse and longitudinal). Ultra-thin serial sections were collected on copper, Etomoxir Formvar-coated slot grids and stained with 2% (w/v) uranyl acetate and lead citrate [15] before being observed using a Hitachi H7600 electron microscope. A total of 899 micrographs from 12 different cells were observed. Two different media were used in an attempt to culture C. aureus: 5% of TYGM-9 (ATCC medium 1171) and 5% of modified PYNFH medium (ATCC medium 1134), diluted in anoxic and axenic seawater at 4°C. However, the cells did not grow in either medium. DNA extraction, PCR amplification, alignment and phylogenetic analysis Twenty individual cells of C.

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