Figure 5 Subserous extravasation of dye causing a fuzzy mesentry is suspicious of mesenteric vascular disruption. Figure 6 Mesentric vascular injury showing bowel wall necrosis and delayed perforation: Mesenteric injury (1) caused bowel ischemia find more but bowel wall necrosis and perforation occurred late on third day (2). Such patients have an unexplained high pulse rate. Discussion Sir McCormack in 1900 was the first to advocate “A man wounded in war in the abdomen dies if he is operated upon and remains alive if he is left in peace” . This aphorism was a
surgical doctrine to manage abdominal trauma in the warfield during early 20th century. This practice went into oblivion due to dogma of mandatory laparotomy in every case of hemoperitonium. The advent of newer imaging techniques
with high resolution Selleckchem MEK162 CT scanners has enabled the clinicians to exactly diagnose the extent of intra-abdominal organ injury . With the publication of many reports of success during the last 20 years, NOM has become an established and accepted management protocol for solid organ injuries in hemodynamically stable patients [9, 14]. NOM poses challenge to Trauma Surgeons on account of varied clinical picture on arrival. The associated injuries, alcohol and drugs may mask abdominal signs and symptoms. Patients with short pre-hospital transport time have initial Proteasome inhibitor subtle clinical features affecting early diagnosis. Around 20 to 40% patients with radiologically significant hemoperitoneum may not have any significant clinical findings. Hemodynamically stable patients with solid organ injury should be considered for NOM after ruling out bowel trauma.
Published literatures and our study have shown that radiological grade of severity of injury is not a contraindication for NOM . CT contrast blush from minor vessels in solid organs were managed by NOM with caution. However, a CT contrast blush of a major vessel in arterial / venous phase is indicative of ongoing hemorrhage, which portends NOM failure. Mesenteric injuries causing bowel ischemia remains a challenge . Presence of fluid without solid organ injury is a significant marker of mesenteric or Montelukast Sodium bowel injury . Usefulness of CT in bowel injuries remains controversial . Liver due to its firm texture is more confidently treated by NOM . In our analysis NOM succeeded in all stable isolated liver injuries but failed in 15% isolated splenic trauma. Delayed splenic bleed occurred in 16(1.5%) of total 1071 patients with other associated injuries. Most splenic injuries did not require close observation beyond 3 days [14, 20]. In x-ray, absence of free air under diaphragm or oral contrast leak does not rule out bowel injury. In suspected stable patients we have done peritoneal tap to look for bowel contents.